Hypersensitivities, Infection, and Immune Deficiencies

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Module 6 Exam

Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by which of the following antibodies?

A) IgG
B) IgD
C) IgM
D) IgE

D) IgE

Large amounts of IgE are produced during type I hypersensitivity reactions.

Which of the following features is characteristic of a type IV hypersensitivity?

A) Antibody-dependent cell-mediated toxicity
B) Delayed response
C) Usually life-threatening
D) Mediated by the complement system

B) Delayed response

A key feature of type IV hypersensitivities is that manifestations of the reactions are usually delayed by 24 to 72 hours.

Type IV hypersensitivities, such as poison ivy reactions, are initiated by:

A) B cells that release IgD 24 to 48 hours after exposure.
B) the release of neutrophil chemotactic factor.
C) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells.
D) the release of large quantities of IgE.

C) the stimulation of cytotoxic T cells.

Type IV hypersensitivities are mediated by Tc cells.

Hyperacute allograft rejection is caused by:

A) cytokines and growth factors produced by trauma to vascular endothelial cells.
B) preformed antibodies that react immediately with the graft.
C) Tc and NK cell destruction of the graft.
D) production of antibodies to the new graft by B lymphocytes.

B) preformed antibodies that react immediately with the graft.

Hyperacute rejection is an immediate reaction to the graft caused by the presence of preformed antibodies to the transplanted tissue. In most cases these antibodies are present from previous transplantation or transfusion.

A positive tuberculin skin test for detecting the presence of tuberculosis is indicative of which type of hypersensitivity reaction?

A) Type I
B) Type II
C) Type III
D) Type IV

D) Type IV

Because this reaction takes 24 to 72 hours to appear, it is a classic example of a type IV hypersensitivity reaction.

Which of the following hypersensitivity reactions involves the formation of antibodies against tissue-specific antigen?

A) Type I
B) Type II
C) Type III
D) Type IV

B) Type II

Type II hypersensitivity reactions involve the formation of antibodies that attack the body's own tissues.

Autoimmunity can result from all of the following hypersensitivities except:

A) type I.
B) type II.
C) type III.
D) type IV.

A) type I.

Type I hypersensitivities result in mast cell degranulation, and problems are caused by the effects of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. In type II, III, and IV reactions, the body begins to recognize self-antigen as foreign.

What is the effect of H1 receptors for histamine on smooth muscle tissue?

A) Bronchodilation
B) Endothelial cell retraction
C) Prolonged vasoconstriction
D) All of the above

B) Endothelial cell retraction

Binding histamine to H1 receptors on endothelial cells results in increased capillary permeability from endothelial cell retraction.

Desensitization therapy improves allergies by which of the following mechanisms?

A) Producing antibodies that prevent the allergen from binding to IgE
B) Decreasing the amount of IgE in the body
C) Decreasing the amount of antigen in the bloodstream
D) Decreasing the responsiveness of the bronchi and blood vessels to histamine

A) Producing antibodies that prevent the allergen from binding to IgE

Desensitization therapy works by producing blocking antibodies that prevent the allergen from binding to IgE.

HIV inserts its genetic material by binding to the _____ on the helper T cell.

A) gp 120 receptor
B) CD8 receptor
C) CD4 receptor
D) phospholipids

C) CD4 receptor

HIV inserts its genetic material by binding to the CD4 receptor on the helper T cell.

If a person has type AB blood, she is likely to have:

A) high titers (levels) of anti-A antibodies.
B) high titers (levels) of anti-B antibodies.
C) no antibodies against A or B antigen.
D) high titers (levels) of anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies.

C) no antibodies against A or B antigen.

A person with type AB blood has no anti-A or anti-B antibodies. If they did, they would destroy their own red blood cells.

What type of reaction occurs when the body mounts an aggressive response against an organ transplanted from another person?

A) Type I hypersensitivity
B) Autoimmune
C) Alloimmune
D) Immunosuppressive

C) Alloimmune

Alloimmune reactions are induced when another person's tissues are introduced into the body.

In type II hypersensitivity, tissue injury is caused by:

A) autoantibody activation of complement and subsequent destruction of target cells.
B) autoantibody stimulation of NK cells that destroy target cells.
C) autoantibody opsonization of target cells and subsequent phagocytosis.
D) all of the above.

D) all of the above.

Type II hypersensitivities involve the production of autoantibodies that target the body's own tissues in all three ways.

The most severe type I hypersensitivity response is:

A) eczema.
B) allergic rhinitis.
C) serous otitis.
D) anaphylaxis.

D) anaphylaxis.

Anaphylaxis involves severe bronchoconstriction and hypotension, which can be life-threatening.

Which of the following factors are known triggers for those who have a genetic predisposition for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

A) Alcohol and intravenous drug use
B) Viral infections and UV light
C) Pollens and food allergens
D) Stress and anxiety

B) Viral infections and UV light

Viral infections and UV light are triggers of SLE.

After initial infection with the HIV, most individuals:

A) experience severe symptoms of AIDS.
B) have mild flu-like symptoms.
C) have low levels of circulating antibodies against HIV.
D) manifest with central nervous system symptoms.

B) have mild flu-like symptoms.

Individuals with early-stage disease present with relatively mild flu-like symptoms, such as night sweats, swollen glands, and fatigue.

Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies that:

A) stimulate the production of thyroid hormone.
B) block the effects of thyroid hormone.
C) destroy the thyroid gland.
D) destroy cells that normally respond to thyroid hormone.

A) stimulate the production of thyroid hormone.

Hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease is caused by the production of autoantibodies that mimic the effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Raynaud phenomenon is an example of a:

A) type I hypersensitivity.
B) type II hypersensitivity.
C) type III hypersensitivity.
D) type IV hypersensitivity.

C) type III hypersensitivity.

Raynaud phenomenon involves immune complex deposition in blood vessels, joints, or kidneys and is therefore characterized as a type III hypersensitivity.

The microorganism that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a:

A) gram-negative bacterium.
B) gram-positive bacterium.
C) retrovirus.
D) protozoan.

C) retrovirus.

AIDS is caused by a retrovirus that contains only viral RNA.

The microorganism that causes AIDS can be transmitted through:

A) heterosexual intercourse.
B) breast milk.
C) blood transfusions.
D) all of the above.

D) all of the above.

The HIV is a blood-borne virus that can be transmitted through unprotected intercourse, breast-feeding, blood transfusions, and several other routes.

When a person has an allergic reaction to a bee sting, which type of hypersensitivity response is occurring?

A) Type I
B) Type II
C) Type III
D) Type IV

A) Type I

Typical allergic responses are characterized as type I hypersensitivity reactions.

Which of the following hypersensitivity reactions is mediated by Tc and Td cells?

A) Type I
B) Type II
C) Type III
D) Type IV

D) Type IV

Type IV reactions are the only hypersensitivity responses mediated by T cells.

Individuals with immunodeficiencies are at risk for:

A) hypersensitivity reactions.
B) fungal infections only.
C) opportunistic infections.
D) autoimmune diseases.

C) opportunistic infections.

Individuals with immunodeficiencies are at risk for infection from all sources, including microorganisms than normally would not cause disease.

A person with type O blood has which of the following antigens present on their red blood cells?

A) A and B
B) Rh
C) O
D) None of the above

D) None of the above

An individual with type O blood has neither the A nor the B antigen.

Which cells are stimulated by the presence of antibodies in a type I hypersensitivity reaction?

A) Mast cells
B) Macrophages
C) B lymphocytes
D) T lymphocytes

A) Mast cells

During a type I hypersensitivity reaction, the presence of IgE stimulates mast cell degranulation.

Which pair of relatives has the highest chance of sharing both HLA haplotypes, making them a good match for an organ transplant from one to the other?

A) Mother and daughter
B) Father and son
C) Siblings
D) Mother and father

C) Siblings

Disease characteristics of SLE include:

A) Tc cell destruction of lung tissue and the gastrointestinal lining.
B) deposition of immune complexes in the kidneys, brain, and heart.
C) autoantibody destruction of the thyroid gland.
D) Tc cell damage to the liver.

B) deposition of immune complexes in the kidneys, brain, and heart.

SLE is a type II hypersensitivity reaction involving deposition of immune complexes in the kidneys, brain, and heart.

Manifestations of the autoimmune disease SLE include:

A) wheezing, eczema, and itching.
B) pulmonary edema, leg swelling, and vein distention.
C) arthritic joint pain, pleuritic chest pain, and rash.
D) nasal polyps, headache, and rhinorrhea.

C) arthritic joint pain, pleuritic chest pain, and rash.

Arthritic joint pain, pleuritic chest pain, and rashes are the most common symptoms of SLE.

If blood cell counts from an individual with AIDS were analyzed, you would expect to see very low quantities of:

A) Th cells.
B) mast cells.
C) red blood cells.
D) neutrophils.

A) Th cells.

The virus that causes AIDS infects Th cells, causing their dysfunction and later death.

A child who has a history of many allergies, recurrent respiratory tract infections, and chronic yeast infections of the gastrointestinal tract may have an underlying immune disease called:

A) severe combined immunodeficiency.
B) IgA deficiency.
C) Bruton agammaglobulinemia.
D) autoimmunity.

B) IgA deficiency.

IgA deficiency results in recurrent infections of the mucosal membranes. The systems most commonly afflicted are the respiratory and gastrointestinal linings.

A person with type AB blood is a universal:

A) bone marrow transplant donor.
B) bone marrow transplant recipient.
C) blood donor.
D) blood recipient.

D) blood recipient.

A person with type AB blood is considered the universal recipient because they will not produce antibodies against any of the other blood types.

When the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?

A) Autoimmune
B) Anaphylaxis
C) Alloimmune
D) Allergic

C) Alloimmune

Alloimmune responses involve reactions against the tissue of another individual. In this case, the mother produces antibodies against fetal red blood cells.

Which of the following hypersensitivity reactions involves the formation of antigen-antibody (immune) complexes that get deposited on vessel walls or in extravascular tissue?

A) Type I
B) Type II
C) Type III
D) Type IV

C) Type III

Type III hypersensitivity reactions are caused by the formation of antigen-antibody (immune) complexes that later get deposited in vessel walls or extravascular tissue.

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