Intro to Biology Final Exam

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Which type of molecular evidence is most useful in determining how Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archea are all related?

rRNA

Which portion of the tree may ultimate be better depicted as a "ring"?

the weblike part near the base of the tree

The amount of energy available to primary consumers is also known as the

Net Primary Productivity

Many homeowners mow their lawns during the summer and collect the clippings, which are hauled to the local landfill. Which of the following actions would most benefit the local ecosystem (i.e. the yard)?

either collect the clippings and add them to a compost pile, or don't collect the clippings and let them decompose in the lawn

Aquatic primary productivity is most limited by which of the following?

light and nutrient availability

A porcupine eats 3000J of plant material. 1600J is indigestible and is eliminated as feces. 1300J are used in cellular respiration. What is the approximate production efficiency of this animal?

3% or 10%

In the third Jurrasic Park movie, the scientists commented that there were far too many predators on the island. This was true because

Energy transfer between trophic levels is usually only 10%, and therefore limits the number of larger predators that feed higher up on the food chian

______ has been eliminated from laundry detergents after studies showed that it cause algal blooms.

Phosphorus

Which of the following statements is correct about biogeochemical cycling?

The phosphorus cycle is the cycle that involves weathering of rocks.

Natural terrestrial Ecosystems are generally green because herbivores are held in check by all of the following, except ______

sunlight

What would be a likely entry for box B?

decomposer population carries on cellular respiration and uses up oxygen

The high levels of pesticides found in birds of prey (i.e. eagles, gulls) is an example of

biological magnification

Agricultural lands frequently require nutritional supplementation because

the nutrients that enter the plants are not returned to the soil of lands where they are harvested

One benefit of DDT is

that it controls bed-bugs and mosquitos that cause malaria

Which of the following is NOT true regarding increased atmospheric CO2 levels?

Scientists are in agreement that increased CO2 levels are causing global warming

Aside from CO2 emissions, we are also concerned about the emission of ______ gases since they cause _______, thereby causing a negative impact on ecosystems.

NO and SO2; acid rain

Which of these is the most common compound in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria

peptidoglycan

Organisms that have a nucleus are also known as

Eukaryotes

Not present in all bacteria, this structure enables those that possess it to germinate(grow) after exposure to harsh conditions, such as drying out completely:

endospore

Which of the following is a structure that permits conjugation to occur?

sex pilus

Viruses are important in increasing genetic diversity in Bacteria by

the process of transduction

Which of these can be inferred from the figure?

The highest rate of genetic change occurred during the first quarter of the experiment

Bacteria that can form mating bridges

contain the "F Factor"

Assuming that each of these possesses a cell wall, which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis (i.e. cell bursting) in hypertonic (very salty) environments?

extreme halophiles

The data were collected from the heterocytes of a nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium inhabiting equatorial ponds. Study the graph below and choose the most likely explanation for the shape of the curve.

Enough O2 enters heterocytes during hours of peak photosynthesis to have a somewhat-inhibitory affect on nitrogen fixation

What is "biofilm"?

a group of different bacterial species that coat moist surfaces, creating a metabolic cooperation

What is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes?

breaking down organic matter

Many physicians administer antibiotics to patients at the first sign of any disease symptoms. Why can this practice cause more problems for these patients, and for others not yet infected?

Overuse of antibiotics can select for antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria

The strongest evidence for the endosymbionic origin of eukaryotic organelles is the similarity between extant prokaryotes and which of the following?

mitochondria and chloroplasts

Which organism represent the common ancestor of all photosynthetic organelles found in eukaryotes?

cyanobacteria

A biologist discovers a new unicellular organism that possesses more than two flagella and two small, equal-sized nuclei. The organism has reduced mitochondria and no chloroplasts. To which clade does this organism probably belong?

the diplomonads

Which of these taxa contains species that produce potent toxins that can cause extensive fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and poison humans?

dinoflagellates

The organism that causes malaria, _____, is a member of the Phylum ______.

Plasmodium, Chromalveolata

Which of the following pairs of protists and their characteristics is mismatched?

ciliates : Red tide organisms

The Oak Wilt in Dallas is caused by an organism that belongs to which group?

oomycetes

Archaeplastida include all of the following except

brown algae

The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern day members of which group?

red algae

Which of the following was a challenge for survival of the first land plants?

desiccation

Each of the following is a general characteristic of bryophytes except

vascular tissue

Hornworts are classified as

Phylum Anthocerophyta

To deal with animal predation, the early Pterophytes evolved

multiple sporophytes growing from each gametophyte

Which of the following is an example of an organism in the Phylum Lycophyta

club moss

Which of the following most closely represents the male gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?

pollen grain interior

Hypothetically, one of the major benefits of double fertilization in angiosperms is to

coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores

Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are primarily adaptations that

inhibit herbivory

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to only the seed-producing plants?

pollen

If a fruit is covered with spines or hooks, it is most likely dispersed by

animal skin, fur, or feathers

Which of the following is a member of the Phylum Coniferophyta?

fir tree

An example of a Basal Angiosperm is the

star anise

You can find a plant with parallel veins in its leaves. This plant most likely belongs to the Class ________

monocot

Which of the following terms or structures is properly associated only with animals

collagen

The number of legs an insect has, the number of vertebrae in a vertebral column, or the number of joints in a digit (such as a finger) are all strongly influenced by

Hox genes

The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a

flagellated protist

You are trying to identify an organism. It is an animal, but it does not have nerve or muscle tissue. It is probably a

Calcarean

A student encounters an animal embryo in the eight-cell stage. The four smaller cells that comprise one hemisphere of the embryo seem to be rotated 45 degrees and lie in the grooves between larger, underlying cells (spiral cleavage). This embryo may potentially develop into a(n)

earthworm

If we were to separate these eight cells and attempt to culture them individually, then what is most likely to happen?

Each cell my continue development, but only into a non-viable embryo that lacks many parts

While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large numbers of fertilized eggs. The student rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a true coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a

mollusc

Which of the following organism is radially symmetrical?

anthozoan

Which cells in a sponge are primarily responsible for trapping and removing food particles from circulating water?

choanocytes

Which of the following is an ectoparasitic Platyhelminthes?

Monogenean

Rotifers reproduce by ______ when conditions are good.

parthenogenesis

True corals are most closely related to which group?

sea anemones

In a small stream, you pick up a rock and observe many small, flattened worms crawling on its undersurface. You decide that they belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. To which class to they probably belong?

Turbellaria

Some species of which of the following annelid classes release an anticoagulant that is of medical importance?

Hirundinea (leeches)

The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelum, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?

Nematoda

Protostomes that have obvious segmentation are part of which phylum?

annelida

Which molluscan class includes members that undergo embryonic torsion?

gastropods

The organisms in the Phylum _______ lack ______, and might better be classified within the Protostome clade.

Aceola, a coelom

Ectoprocts are also known as Bryozoa (moss animals) because

their extended lophophore during feeding make them look like a fuzzy underwater moss

Which of the following organisms undergoes a molt (ecdysis)?

termite

Nudibranchs are marine slugs that have lost their shell (similar to land slugs). However, the tissue that normally makes the shell still exists but is modified as a way to perform gas exchange. This tissue is also called the ____

mantle

Which of the following organisms is NOT a protostome?

holothuroidea

Which of the following organism contains chitin?

scorpion

A millipede is classified in the Sub-Phylum

Myriapoda

Crustaceans include all of the following EXCEPT

horseshoe crabs

Which of the following is a shared characteristic of all chordates?

dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance? In other words, which one of the following has only the four basic chordate characteristics?

Cephalochordata

Which is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?

a mostly cartilaginous endoskeleton

Terry catches an animal from the Class Osteichthys from the ocean and notices that, attached to its flank, there is an equally long, snakelike organism. The Osteightyhys looks frail and sickly, almost dead. The attached organism has no external segmentation, no scales. a round mouth surrounded by a sucker and two small eyes. Terry thinks it might be a marine leech, a hagfish, or a lamprey. Which feature excludes it from possibly being a leech?

its lack of segmentation

Terry detaches the snakelike organism from the fish and uses a knife to cut off its head, in doing so, its brain slides out onto the deck of the boat. Terry peers into the cut end of the head and notices that the brain had lain in a sort of pan-like structure that only partially surrounded the brian. What is the structure Terry is observing?

cranium

Having caught and handled a hagfish, what will Terry's shipmates most likely require Terry to do before returning to further fishing?

Clean the bucketsful of hagfish slime from the deck of the boat

According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of

skeletal rods that had supported the pharyngeal (gill) slits

A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was

feet

What permits reptiles to thrive in arid environments?

their scales contain the protein keratin, which helps prevent dehydration

Which of these is not considered an amniote?

amphibians

Birds are most closely related to which of the following groups?

crocodilia

During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose?

jaws, paired fins, swim bladder, amniotic egg, diaphragm

Which of the following is oviparous?

monotreme

The purpose of the chorion is an amniotic egg is for

fas exchange

The armadillo is the State Small _____ of Texas

mammal

Which of the following is most closely related to Primates

Lagomorpha

Horses and zebras are in the order

Perissodactyla

Pan and Pongo are members of the Order

Primate

How are primates different from all other mammals?

opposable thumbs in many species

Which of these is a trend in hominin evolution?

increased brain to body ratio

The tissue type responsible for covering or lining the organs and coelum is the ____ tissue

epithelial

The _______ connects epithelial tissue to extra-cellular matrix

basement membrane

You gently pull up the skin on the back of your hand. It can only stretch a certain distance because the non-elastic _______ will not allow you to pull it any further

collagen

Cells called _____ make _____

chondrocytes; cartilage

The type of muscle that is involuntary and striated is ______ muscle

cardiac

In the DVD "Homeostasis," at the beginning of the race the hormone _______ was responsible for _______

epinephrine; increased heart rate

In the DVD "Homeostasis," assume Martina's hear rate was 120 bpm, her stroke volume was 100mL, and her blood pressure was 130/70. What was her Cardiac Output in mL/min?

12000

In the DVD "Homeostasis," at the end of the race,

Martina had lost 5kg of weight, primarily water

Some scientists believe that tuna fish are warm blooded. This is

true, because the heat generated by its constantly moving muscles keeps it warm

The normal range of blood glucose is 90-100 mg/dL, but if the blood glucose levels rise beyond this level, the hormone _____ is released.

insulin

A patient who is not receiving all their essential Amino Acids likely will have problems with, or will have the condition known as

brittle nails and hair that is falling out

In terms of excess, which nutrient is most likely to accumulate in the body and cause overdoses

vitamin D

Pre-natal vitamins contain high levels of _____, which is critical in DNA and protein synthesis

folic acid

Dr. O's son loves his pirate ship toy, which is names "Scurvy Dog." Scurvy refers to the condition which plagued many sailors in the 1700's and 1800's where the lack of vitamin __, a crucial co-factor in collagen synthesis, was lacking from the sailor's diets.

C

Warfarin is an excellent anti-coagulant drug that at low doses is pharmacologically effective at preventing heart attack and stroke, but at high doses is a rat poison. Warfarin targets

vitamin K

One role of saliva is to

lubricate food

The role of the epiglottis is to

prevent food from entering the trachea

A patient genetically lacks Paretial cells. This means that the patient

cannot produce HCl

All of these can be components of bile except

trypsinogen

The signal that food has entered the stomach and that the stomach should start churning harder and making gastric juices is the hormone

gastrin

Pancreatic enzymes are not activated until ____ is converted to its active form in the _________.

trypsinogen; small intestines

Lipids are emulsified for easier digestion and absorption by ______.

bile salts

An important role of the large intestine is to

absorb water

The hepatic portal vein carries blood

from the digestive tract to the liver

What is enterohepatic recirculation?

xenobiotics in food --> intestines --> liver --> bile --> intestines --> liver, etc.

One of the spleen's most important functions is to

recycle erithrocytes

Moray eels have a ______ chambered heart, and snakes have a ______ chambered heart.

two, three

The vessel leaving the right ventricle in humans has several names. One of them is the

pulmonary artery

Blood returning from the systematic circulation in humans will go first to the

right atrium

Systole is when the

ventricle is contracting

In an EKG, the QRS complex represents the

electrical firing of the AV node, Purkinje fibers, and Bundles of His

The ______ node fires first to give a time-delay to the _____ done to coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles.

SA; AV

The diving reflex helps in

slowing the heart and breath rate

What two factors affect the inward flow of interstitial fluids into a capillary at the venous end of a capillary bed?

low capillary hydrostatic pressure and high capillary osmotic pressure

One important function of the arterioles is to

regulate blood flow through capillary beds using precapillary sphincters

Rachel measured her blood pressure before exercise (110/73) and immediately after exercise (124/74). These measurement are

normal, since diastolic pressure stayed just about the same, but systolic pressure increased to compensate for her increased need for oxygen-delivery during exercise

The hematocrit refers to the percentage of _____ in the blood

erithrocytes

A patient has the left side of her face drooping, her left arm is week, and she has hypertension. Likely what happened was that

she had a stroke, blocking a blood vessel to her brain

The hormone erythropoietin is released when you hike to high altitudes. This hormone

increases the production of erythrocytes

The first step in sealing a small break in a blood vessel is the formation of ________. Usually, this is all that is needed to seal the break.

a platelet plug

LDL-cholesterol is considered ______ since it ________.

lousy; transports cholesterol to the blood stream

Congestive heart failure occurs when

the heart enlarges due to pumping against an afterload, ultimately leading to less coordinated myocardial contractions

Hypertension if often associated with a condition where

a plaque of lipids, connective tissues and inflammation partially block arteries

Gills in fish, lungs in frogs, and lungs in birds are all respiratory surfaces. They share two traits:

moist surface; large surface area

You are holding your preath for a very long period of time, and begin to feel that urge to breathe. This urge is triggered by

high levels of CO2 in the bloodstream

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because

the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume

Oxygen is transported primarily from the lungs to the tissues by being bound to

hemoglobin inside erithrocytes

After completing your BS degree in a Science field, NASA recruits you to help them explore a newly discovered planet that might be able to sustain life. Their data indicates that the atmosphere on this planet is 50% oxygen, 25% nitrogen, and 25% helium. The total atmospheric pressure is 500mmHg. What is the partial pressure of oxygen on this new planet's atmosphere in mmHg.

250

The hemoglobin )Hb) dissociation curve shows that

oxygen is bound to Hb at low PO2 (20 mm Hg) and is released at high PO2 (100 mmHg)

Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure. This probably relates to which of the following?

the sudden change from the uterine environment to the air

Which molecule is excreted mostly by aquatic animals because of its solubility and toxic properties?

ammonia

Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the following processes?

reabsorption

Which structure passes urine directly to the renal pelvis?

collecting duct

Processing of filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules accomplishes what important function?

pumping metabolized xenobiotics into the filtrate

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