Biology is ______.
The study of living things
Biological literacy is the ability to:
-use the process of scientific inquiry to think creatively about real- world issues that have a biological component
- communicate ideas about biology to others
- integrate ideas about biology into your decision making
Science is self- correcting. This means that :
Science actively seeks to disprove its own theories and hypothesis
A null hypothesis:
is the premise that no difference exists between a treatment and control groups
The proposal explanation for a phenomenon is BEST described as:
A scientific theory is one that:
is the result of all scientific experiments
Which of the following is the BEST description of a control group in an experiment?
The control group is identical to each test group except for one variable
is a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other substance
The four most abundant elements in living organisms are:
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Which of the following elements have four elections in their outer shells?
Carbon and silicon
If you were going to build a large macromolecule or polymer it needs to be strong. What type of chemical bond do you think would work best for building macromolecules?
-Act as a relatively quickly available source of fuel
-serve as carbon skeletons that can be rearranged to form other molecules that are essential for biological structures and functions like nucleic acids.
-on the plasma membrane serve as cell recognition signals
Which of the following is not an important biological function of lipids?
-regulation of growth and development
-protection of internal organs and tissues
The message on a DNA molecule is
used to make proteins
Which of the following statement about enzymes is NOT true?
Enzymes are permanently changed when they take place in a chemical reaction
Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts of DNA?
Adenine and Thymine
Prokaryotic organisms lack:
According to the theory of endosymbiosis, the origin of chloroplasts probably involved:
engulfing of small photosynthetic prokaryotes by larger cells
Which of the following statements about chitin is incorrect?
Humans easily digest chitin as a quick form of energy
Which of the following is the most important factor governing a cell's particular type of interaction with other cells
The pattern of proteins on the cell's surface
Which of the following BEST summarizes the differences between osmosis and diffusion?
Osmosis deals only with water
Which of the following is NOT a way in which the cell's surface membrane interacts with the exterior environment?
The cellular surface organizes the interior organelle organization of the cell
What cell type in animals has a flagellum?
The sperm cell
Which of the following is NOT a function of the plant vacuole?
Which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it.
Which of the following is NOT a form of kinetic energy?
A covalent bond linking phosphate molecules
Every time a source of energy is converted from one form to another:
Some of the energy is converted to heat, which is one of the least usable forms of kinetic energy
Which of the following is NOT a product of photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll b and the carotenoids are important as receptors of light energy because they:
respond to wavelengths different from the wavelengths that chlorophyll a responds to
Aerobic training can cause our bodies to produce more mitochondria in cells. Why is this beneficial?
Chemical reactions in the mitochondria provide energy for exercise
Bubbles come from the leaves of an Elodea plant when it is put under water because:
oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis
The carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enters the plant through the:
Cellular respiration is the process by which:
energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism
Animal fats and plant oils are sometimes used as sources of fuel for automobile engines. How is energy harvested from these molecules?
They contain long chains of hydrocarbons that, when broken, release the energy stored in the bonds linking the atoms together.
Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from:
carbohydrates, proteins, fats.
Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions of:
low oxygen concentrations
A ______ is a pill that looks identical to a pill that contains the active ingredient in a scientific trial, but contains no active ingredient itself.
All matter on earth, both biotic and abiotic, is made up of:
An atom can be changed into an ion by adding or removing:
There are three principal types of bonds that hold multiple atoms together. These are:
Covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds.
Which of the following facts supports the claim that the mitochondria developed from bacteria that were long ago phagocytosed into eukaryotic cells?
Mitochondria have their own DNA
Which of the following is NOT an important structural feature on the surface membrane of an animal cell?
Which of the following BEST defines diffusion?
net movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make carbonated soft drinks. Which of the following is the solute?
The sugar and the CO2
_____ are found in all metabolically active cells and are involved primarily in transporting materials within, into, and out of cells.
Life gains most of its energy from:
are arrangements of light-catching pigments within chloroplasts
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
in the cellular cytoplasm
If a marathon runner is in the last 2 miles of a full-length marathon, the runner is most likely making ATP by:
anaerobic cellular respiration
Alcoholic beverages are produced as a result of
glucose breakdown by yeast occurring in the absence of oxygen
DNA is now often used as evidence in criminal trials. It is particularly useful because it can be found in
Hair, Saliva, Bone, Dead skin cells
In any DNA molecule, the number of guanine bases will :
always be equal to the number of cytosine bases
The complementary base pairs in a DNA molecule are stabilized by:
-the electrostatic interactions of the charged backbone
-a covalent bond
from DNA to protein involves which series of events?
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it, and what is it replaced by?
Thymine, replaced by Uracil
An important difference between mRNA and DNA is
mRNA contains uracil instead of thymine, which is found in DNA
Which of the following molecules is NOT DIRECTLY involved in translation?
In asexual reproduction, daughter cells inherit their DNA from ____.
A single parent
The purpose of mitosis is to enable existing cells
to generate new, genetically identical cells
Somatic cells can include
Kidney cells, heart cells, liver cells
Using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes:
during mitosis and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent
The human genome is made up of:
Crossing over takes place during
The egg cells of a horse contain 32 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the horse's somatic cells?
Whether it is egg or sperm being produced through meiosis, under normal circumstances, each gamete ends up with:
Equal amounts of cytoplasm
Which of the following statements is NOT correct of human sex chromosomes?
All diploid cells have both an X and a Y chromosome
In some species, sex is determined by environmental, rather than genetic factors. this is true of:
How many human traits are controlled by a single gene?
Which of the following did Gregor Mendel never see?
The law of segregation states that
alleles for a given trait segregate into different gametes
Which of the following statements about dominant traits is correct?
They usually suppress the expression of the recessive trait
An individual with two individual alleles for a particular gene is said to be:
homozygous for that gene
The test- cross
-makes it possible to determine the genotype of an individual of unknown genotype who exhibits the dominant version of a trait
- is a cross of an individual whose genotype for a trait is not known with an individual homozygous- recessive for the trait
- sometimes requires the production of multiple offspring in order to reveal the genotype of an individual whose genotype is unknown
A situation in which the heterozygote offspring of two homozygous individuals show a phenotype intermediate between those of the parents is called:
A population is
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same general location and have the potential to interbreed
Evolution is defined as:
a change in the frequency of alleles in a population over time
The appropriate unit for defining and measuring genetic variation is the:
All of the following statements are true about mutations EXCEPT
the mutation rate can be affected by genetic drift
A storm washed five female and five male tiger beetles from the mainland to a small island that had no previous population of tiger beetles. In tiger beetles, having six spots (A) is dominant to having four spots (a). All ten beetles had six spots, bot one male and one female were heterozygous for the four-spot trait. If six of the beetles died randomly without reproducing, the ration of the genotype could be quite different in subsequent generations. This change in allele frequencies would be an example of:
Select from the choices below the statement that best describes the effect of the migration of individuals into a population.
Migration of individuals into a population generally increases the genetic variability within a population
For a population to evolve through natural selection:
its members must possess inheritable variation
Which of the following is the best measure of an organisms' fitness?
the number of fertile offspring it produces
Natural selection results from interactions
individual organisms and their enviorment.
Artificial selection is likely to produce population- level changes most quickely in organisms with:
A short generation time
Under the right conditions, which type of selection is most likely to lead to the formation of new species?
From an evolutionary perspective, behavior can be viewed best as:
a trait that can be acted on by natural selection
Species that are only distantly related but occupy similar enviorments often come to resemble each other through a process known as:
Which of the following is NOT a topic in animal behavior
communication, cooperation and sociality, courtship and mate choice, behavioral control of body temperature.
During the breeding season, the sight of a red belly on any other stickleback triggers aggressive behavior in a male stickleback. This is called:
A fixed action pattern
Which of the following best illustrates an instinctive behavior in cats?
hunting and killing
Kin selection is best defined as:
selection for a behavior that lowers an individual's own chances of survival or production, but raises those of a relative
When one vervent monkey grooms another, the monkey being groomed has its fitness improved because
the groomer is removing parasites
When individuals of any species find themselves in an enviorment that differs from the environment to which they are evolutionarily adapted, we observe that:
They engage in behaviors better fit to the environment the species evolved in than the enviornment the individual organisms find themselves in
The energy that a parent puts into the growth, feeding, and care of offspring is called:
Which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female?
Male produce motile gametes
The sex with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will be _____ when it comes to mating
Chemicals released by an individual into the environment that trigger behavioral responses in other individuals are called
Which of the following statements BEST describes the difference between artificial and natural selection?
Natural selection acts without the input of humans; artificial selection requires human input.
Which of the following statments about Charles Darwin is FALSE?
He was enthusiastic about unleashing his theory of natual selection on the world as soon as he though of it
"Survival of the fittest" may be a misleading phrase to describe the process of evolution by natural selection because:
survival matters less to natural selection than reproductive success does
Phase 1 of the creation of life on earth was ____. Phase 2 was the formation of self-replication, information-containing molecules. Phase 3 was the development of a membrane, which enabled metabolism and created the first cells
the formation of small molecules containing carbon and hydrogen
The biological species concept is primarily based on
Horses and Donkeys can breed and produce sterile offspring known as mules. Horses and donkeys remain separate species because of this hybrid sterility, which is:
A postzygotic barrier to reproduction
_____ isolating mechanisms include hybrid mortality and hybrid infertility
In captivity, tigers and lions have been known to interbreed producing hybrids, known as ligers. Why does this NOT make them the same species, according to the biological species concept?
Captivity is not a natural condition
Wolves and bears are placed in the same taxonomic order. Therefore, they most also be classified in the same:
The morphological species concept:
groups species based on similar phenotype
Speciation that occurs when there is a geographic isolation is called _____ speciation
Which of the following senarios would best facilitate adaptive radiation?
A population of birds becomes stranded on an island
All mammals have hair because they inherited that trait from a common ancestor. Features that are inherited from a common ancestor are called:
Analogous features are problematic when constructing evolutionary trees because:
They are the result of natural selection rather than common ancestry
To which one of the following is the bat's wing NOT homologous?
The dragonfly's wing
The pace of evolution in which there is little change for long periods of time interrupted by short periods with major changes is called
____ produces new species and ____ takes them away.
Which of the following is NOT correct about all animals?
all have true tissues
Why is the amniotic egg considered a key evolutionary innovation?
It greatly increases the survival probabilities of eggs in a terrestrial environment
Which of the following are chordates
frogs, humans, fish, lampreys
Sharks have ____ skeletons, while sunfish have _____skeletons
Birds are _____, while turtles are _____.
Which of the following series of events correctly describes the evolutionary history of the vertebrates, from the earliest to latest in time?
lungs - jaws - four limbs - hair
The most specious group of exant animals are the ______.
What is the major developmental characteristic that shows the close relationship between echinoderms and chordates?
in both groups, the gut develops back to front
The molluscan class Cephalopoda includes all of the following kinds of animals EXCEPT:
Two important features that distinguish mammals from any other type of animal are:
hair and mammary glands
Which of the following is an example of echinoderm?
Members of which of the following groups exhibits radial symmetry?
As adults, sponges of the phylum Porifera are sessile, meaning that they ____.
live attached to a solid structure and do not more around
The ferns possess all of the following EXCEPT
The most common term for the action of transerring pollen grains from an anther onto a stigma is
Which of the following is NOT an example of a gymnosperm?
In angiosperms the _____ are the specialized reproductive organs whose main function is to bring together the sperm and egg
The ____ are the most diverse group of plants living today
Which of the following is NOT an example of an angiosperm
Flowering plants have evolved to attract animals to assist them in pollination. Which of the following animals is not a common pollinator of flowering plants?
bats, hummingbirds, moths, bumblebees
Why are insectivorous plants (plants that eat insects) most common in boggy areas?
because insects tend to live in boggy areas
The cell wall of fungi is made of _____
Of the group mentioned below, the fungi are most closely related to:
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about microbes?
Microbes are not genetically diverse
Which of the following is NOT one of the kingdoms included within the Eukarya domain?
Bacteria reproduce by ____, which creates ____ exact daughter cell clones of the original parent cell
binary fission; two
Which of the following statements about the archaeal genome is correct?
The archaeal genome is primarily composed of genes that cannot be found in either of the other domains of life, making them unique
How did mitochondria originate in protists?
They derived from bacterial cells that were taken via in endocytosis and later specialized
The first eukaryotes were
The basic structure of a virus consists of:
Genetic information in the form of DNA or RNA enclosed within a protein coat
Viral DNA is replicated by:
using the host's metabolic machinery and energy
Many scientists do not consider viruses to be living organisms. Why is this?
Because they are dependent on their host's metabolic machinery for replication
Which of the following types of organisms is immune to viral infection?
Protists, Fungi, Birds, Plants
Prey reduce their risk of predation through physical and behavioral defenses. Which of the following is NOT a physical defense for the reduction of predation?
the spiciness of a jalepeno pepper
play an unusually important role in determining the species composition in a habitat
When preserving areas to act as reservoirs for biodiversity, corridors are important because
they increase gene flow between the areas they connect
carrying capacity is
stabilizing of population size to environmental resource gradients in a location
All of the following phrases could characterize a population EXCEPT
The continued existence of as many species as possible providers what kinds of values to humans?
economic value, spiritual value, medical value, ecosystem services
Which factor is MOST LIKELY to have a density- independent influence on population growth?
extreme weather conditions
Life histories are based on:
rate of growth and development, age at death, age of reproduction and number of reproductive events, the amount of energy available to and individual at birth
Which of the following mammals would you expect to have the shortest gestation period?
Mutations that cause sickness and death after reproduction:
Can be passed on to future generations
"Ecology" is defined as:
The study of the relationships between all living organisms and their enviorments
When more than two members of the same species live in the same place at the same time, they constitute:
the number of individuals that can be supported in a given habitat is the:
Which of the following is NOT an example of a density- dependent limiting factor that will influence carrying capacity?
A key factor in determining the longevity of an organism is:
its age at reproduction & the hazards that an organism is subjected to on a daily basis
consists of all of the living and nonliving things functioning together in an area
The term biota refers to
all living species of all kinds
Which of the following is an example of an abiotic factor?
mean annual rainfall in an ecosystem
Which of the following organisms would occupy a high trophic level (i.e. level in food chain)
may exist at any trophic level
"food chains are an accurate representation of energy flow through an ecosystem" this statement is:
true; however they do not represent the amount of energy flowering through an ecosystem
Roughly how much energy in a trophic level is available to the next trophic level?
The demographic transition:
includes a decrease in the birth rate followed by a decrease in the death rate as a population becomes industrialized.
Which factor would MOST LIKELY influence an environments carrying capacity for field mice?
The "fundamental niche" of an organism is defined as:
the range of environmental conditions under which the organism can survive and reproduce
The phenomenon in which species that live together in the same environment tend to diverge in those characters that overlap is known as
When two species battle for resources until one is driven locally extinct, the process is called:
Conservation biology draws from all but which of the following disciplines?
physical sciences, economics, social sciences, biological sciences
Biodiversity _____ have been identified based on high biodiversity and imminent threats caused by human activities
species richness tends to increase towards the
A species found ONLY within a certain region is said to be ____ to that region
According to island biogeography theory, the highest numbers of species would be found on islands that:
are large in size and near to continents
Exponential growth can continue indefinitely only if:
None of the above is correct, exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely.
What may may happen when a population exceeds its carrying capacity?
-the population will slow decline until it reaches its carrying capacity and fluctuate about that number
- the population may shoot past its carrying capacity too quickly and crash
The number of species on an island represents a balance between:
The rate of immigration to the island by new species and the rate of extinction of species on the island
though still important, which of the following is NOT one of the leading causes of extinction?
Greenhouse gas accumulation
Which of the following is currently the leading cause of extinction?
Ecosystem disturbance may be reversible when:
When it occurs very quickly
Fossil fuels are composed largely of
Hydrogen and carbon
Which of the following is considered to be a greenhouse gas?
Methane & Carbon Dioxide
_______is responsible for th greatest loss of tropical forests
Classifying animals as endangered or threatened:
-Makes legal tools available to help protect the species
-describes the likelihood of a species continued survival
Which of the following attributes of a species might render it especially susceptible to extinction?
It has a narrow dispersal range
What does it mean to say that a species is endangered?
That species is in imminent danger of extinction
What does it mean to say a species is a "threatened" species?
That species is not in immediate danger of extinction but is likely to be so in the near future
What does it mean in conservation biology to say a habitat is fragmented?
That habitat exists in patches that are physically isolated from each other
A species that can engender significant public support for conservation of other species and the ecosystem they all inhabit is called