Those staff members concerned with encouraging prisoners to participate in educational, vocational, and treatment programs.
Time taken off an inmate sentence for participating in certain positive activities such as going to school, learning a trade, and working in prison.
The tensions between prison staff members and inmates that arise out of the correctional setting.
The beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular group of people within a larger society.
The belief, values, and behavior of staff. They differ greatly from those of inmate subculture.
Correctional Officer Personalities
The distinctive personal characteristics of correctional officers, including behavioral, emotional, and social traits.
Industrial shop and school officers
Those who ensure efficient use of training and educational resources withing the prison.
perimeter security officers
Those assigned to security(or gun) towers, wall posts, and perimeter patrols. these officers are charged with preventing escapes and detecting and preventing intrusions.
experienced correctional officers who know and can perform almost any custody role within the institution, used to temporarily replace officers who are sick or on vacation or to meet staffing shortages.
A place where the same people work, play, eat, sleep, and recreate together on a continuous basis. The term was developed by sociologist Erving Goffman to describe prisons and other similar facilities.
inmate subculture/prisoner subculture
The habits, customs, mores, values, beliefs, or superstitions of the body of inmates incarcerated in correctional institutions; also the inmate social world.
The process by which inmates adapt to prison society; the taking on of the ways, mores, customs, and general culture of the penitentiary.
pains of imprisonment
Major problems that inmates face, such as loss of liberty and personal autonomy, lack of material possessions, loss of heterosexual relationships, and reduce personal security.
The belief that inmate subcultures develop in response to the deprivations in prison life.
The belief that inmate subculture are brought into prisons from the outside world.
A combination of importation theory and deprivation theory. The belief that, in childhood, some inmate acquired, usually from peers, values and support law violating behavior but that the norms and standards in prison also affect inmates.
a set of norms and values among prison inmates. It is generally antagonistic to the official administration and rehabilitation programs of the prison.
family-like structures, common in women's prison, in which inmates assume roles similar to those of family members in free society.
the incarceration and interaction of female and male offenders under a single institutional administration.
Constitutional guarantees of free speech, religious practice, due process, and other private and personal rights as well as constitutional protections against cruel and unusual punishments made applicable to prison inmates by federal courts.
The personal and due process rights guaranteed to individuals by the U.S. constitution and its amendments, especially the first 10 amendments, known as the the Bill of Rights. Constitutional right are the basis of most inmate rights.
A historical policy of American courts not to intervene in prison management. Courts tended to follow the doctrine until the late 1960s.
Prison administration interests reorganize by courts as justifying some restrictions on the constitutional rights of prisoners. Those interests are maintenance of institutional order, maintenance of institutional security, safety of prison inmates and staff, and rehabilitation of inmates.
writ of habeas corpus
An order that directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judge, who will determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment.
a civil wrong, a wrongful act, or a wrongful breach of duty, other than a breach of contract, whether intentional or accidental, from a which injury to another occurs.
small amounts of money a court may award when inmates have sustained no actual damages, but there is clear evidence that their rights have been violated.
money a court may award as payment for actual losses suffered by a plaintiff, including out of pocket expenses incurred in filing the suit, other forms of monetary or material loss, and pain, suffering, and mental anguish.
money a court may award to punish a wrongdoer when a wrongful act was intentional and malicious or was done with reckless disregard for the rights of the victim.
legitimate penological objectives
the realistic concerns that correctional officers and administrators have for the integrity and security of the correctional institution and the safety of staff and inmates.
A method the U.S. Supreme Court uses to decide prisoners' rights cases, weighing the rights claimed by inmates against the legitimate needs of prisons.
cruel and unusual punishment
A penalty that is grossly disproportionate to the offense or that violates today's broad and idealistic concepts of dignity, civilized standards, humanity, and decency(Estelle v. Gamble, 1976, and Hutto v. Finney, 1978) In the area of capital punishment, cruel and unusual punishments are those that involve torture, a lingering death, or unnecessary pain.
A written compact, sanctioned by a court, between parties in civil case, specifying how disagreements between them are to be resolved.
Intentional and willful indifference. Within the field of correctional practice, the term refers calculated inattention to unconstitutional conditions of confinement.
totality of conditions
A standard to be used in evaluating whether prison conditions are cruel or unusual.
A right guaranteed by the fifth,sixth, and fourteenth amendments to the U.S. Constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the expected course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms established for the protection of persons' rights.
lawsuits with no foundation in fact. They are generally bought for publicity, political, or other reasons not related to law.
An approach to sentencing that emphasizes interchangeability of punishments; for example, three days under house arrest might be considered equal to one day of incarceration.
An altercation involving three or more inmates, resulting in official action beyond summary sanctions and for which there is an institutional record.
Any action by a group of inmates that constitutes a forcible attempt to gain control of a facility or area within a facility.
A freestanding facility, or distinct unit within a facility, that provides for management and secure control of inmates who have been officially designated as exhibiting violent or serious and disruptive behavior while incarcerated.
A person appointed by court to act as its representative to oversee remedy of a violation and provide regular progress reports.
no frill prisons and jails
correctional institutions that take away prisoner amenities and privileges.