Test 3 Architectural History

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Industrialization

the development of industries for the machine production of goods

Iron

it was difficult to make because it had to be heated and melted by charcoal which had a lot of impurities

Abraham Darby

Inventor of Coke

Coke

Super condensed coal, stripped of its impurities which is used to make iron. Invented by Abraham Darby.

Coalbrookdale

An iron making town that people called Hell. It is now called Ironbridge because it was home to the first iron bridge. Also had ceramics industry with giant kilns.

Iron Bridge B

A: Abraham Darby III, Thomas Pritchard and John Wilkinson
D: Located in Coalbrookdale. First iron bridge. Even though they were using iron they built it as if they were using wood with pegged joints.

Conway Bridge B

A: Thomas Telford
D:Located in Conway. It was a suspension bridge which used iron links. Has a medieval style.

Menai Straits Bridge B

A:Thomas Telford
D: A forged link suspension bridge. It is considered the first engineered bridge.

Clifton Suspension Bridge B

A: I. K. Brunel
D: Used suspension and had vaguely Egyptian piers.

Textiles

Part of the industrialization. Buildings began to be built for the machine rather than humans. Harnessed water power.

Richard Arkwright

Invented the loom. And was known for damming rivers for his factories.

2nd Derby Mill B

A: Richard Arkwright
D: Looked like a manor house with Palladian and thermal widows. Produced thread. Dammed a river.

Kew Palm Stove B

A: Decimus Burton
D: A botanical garden (Green house). It was constructed from iron and glass. The main supports were made by a ship builder and it resembled an upside down ship.

Leeds Corn Exchange B

A: Charles Broderick
D: Built from iron and glass sheets.

London Coal Exchange B

A: JB Bruning
D: An untypical building which uses iron and glass.

Billingsgate Market B

A: JB Bruning
D: An untypical building which uses iron and glass.

Crystal Palace B

A: Joseph Paxton
D: It was a contest winner in a contest to build a building which would house industry. Made of iron and glass. Had wooden slots for the glass. Housed a tree. Was so popular that at the end of the fair they disassembled it and put it back up all over the world.

Les Halles B

A: Victor Baltard
D: Located in France. A market which has a very skinny frame.

Printemps B

A: Paul Sepille
D: Located in France. A market with a glass roof.

Bibliotheque Nationale B

A: Henri Lebrouste
D: Located in France. A library.

Bibliotheque St. Genevieve B

A: Henri Lebrouste
D: Located in France. A library in Renaissance style.

Eiffel Tower B

A: Gustave Eiffel. Built in 1889. It won first place in a contest. It is taller than the pyramids.

Strawberry Hill B

A: Horace Walpole
D: Similar to the building described in his novel. A medieval style building with turrets and crenelations.

Castle of Otronto

The first Romance Novel. It was written by Horace Walpole.

The Tombs B

A:John Haviland
D: Manhattan Prison. Used Egyptian revival because it was supposed to suggest that, similar to an Egyptian afterlife, the imprisonment would be forever.

Greek Revival

It was initiated by the guerrilla war between Greece and Turkey. The was was romanticized and all of Europe helped Greece win.

Count Ypsilanti

A famous Greek general.

British Museum B

A: Robert Smirke

Andalusia B

A: T.U. Walter
D: It was the house of the great banker and classicist, Nicolas Biddle. Around it he wrapped a pediment and collunade in a Greek fashion.

Gothic Revival

It was the symbol of Christianity and romance. It led to the manufacture of ruins.

Fonthill Abbey B

A: James Wyatt
D: It was a house for William Beckford. It had a 300ft tower and was mostly composed of circulation space. It was an escape from industrialization. It collapsed shortly after he sold it.

Delamater House B

A: A.J.Davis who also wrote about it in his book.
Also called the Hudson River Valley House. It is situated in what is considered the American paradise. It has a Gothic triple arch porch and pointed roof.

An Attempt to discriminate the styles of English Architecture

A book written by John Britton and Thomas Rickman. it categorizes English architecture.

Gothick

The term used to describe post-period Gothic architecture. It is not as advanced.

High Victorian Gothic

A more respected form of Gothic Revival.

Euston Station B

A: Phil Hardwick and Robert Stephenson
D: It was made from metal and glass. Stephenson did the train dock only. The entrance was classical.

St. Pancras station B

A: W. H. Barkow, R.M. Ordish andM G.G. Scott.
D: Built in 1863. The tracks are elevated 10-12ft in order to cross the Regeant Canal. There is a Victorian hotel above the station which was entered into a contest.

Penn Station B

A:
D: Built in 1907. It is classical and uses a lot of marble. Has impressive barrel vaulting.

The Arts and Crafts Movement

It was during the 19th century. People defied machinery and considered work only physical and hands on.

McKim, Mead and White

...

Ford Maddox Brown

Did a painting of men doing physical labor ("work") while the women did their domestic duties and watched the children.

William Morris

A declared socialist who was a big leader in the Arts and Crafts community.

News From Nowhere

William Morris' novel about a man who travels to a socialist future.

Jane Morris

The wife of William Morris. Also a big Arts and Crafts leader. She was also the inspirations for the Pre-Raphaelite paintings.

Pre-Raphaelites

Artists who painted pictures of women who resembled Jane in strange settings.

Morris, Marshall and Faulkner

Called "The Firm" it is Morris and several Pre-Raphaelites who formed a group of designers. Their goal was to create quality Arts and Craft products (houses included. It was meant to bring quality to the masses. It was in 1861.

Red House B

A: Phillip Webb
D: It was all brick. Arts and Crafts building. It was influenced by Webb's passion for historic buildings. Also had some modern features. Used a corridor (main hallway). West side windows for afternoon sun.

Butterfly House B

A: Edward Prior
D: Arts and Crafts House. Gabled roofs on each end of the building which are sloped to give the appearance of wings.

Cragside B

A: Richard Norman Shaw
D: Arts and Crafts. Detailed interior. Out side has a lot of medieval references including half timbering.

Bedford Park B

A: Richard Norman Shaw
D: Arts and Crafts. Sold to Artists.

Leyswood B

A: Richard Norman Shaw

CFA Voysly

A person who used English Free Style. Built domestic,comfortable environments.

Whitechapel Gallery B

A: Charles Townsend
D: Built with the intent of bringing arts and crafts to the masses. Didn't work because they couldn't pay to house the main piece of art behind the facade.

Gustave Stickley

Published the magazine "The Craftsman." He believed in proper jointing and buildings where the joints are all exposed. His preferred type of building was a bungalo.

Gamble House B

A: Greene and Greene
D: In California. It was inspired by Japanese arch. It has Tiffany stained glass and a sleeping porch. It was meant to emphasize the materials.

FLW House B

A: Frank Loyd Wright
D: Big simple gable and pinwheel plan.

Prairie House B

A: Frank Loyd Wright
D: Long low horizontal lines. Ideal for the prairies.

Robie House B

A: Frank Loyd Wright
D: Has a protective wall. It was built for the ideal client. Has a hidden front door and open interior.

Trinity Church B

A: H.H. Richardson
D: On the "best architecture" list for 100 years.

Marshall Fields B

A: H.H. Richardson
D: A warehouse in Chicago. Big box building. Used the tapering window facade. Was torn down to build a parking lot.

Monadnock Block B

A: Burnham and Root
D: Brick on Brick construction. Somewhat of a skyscraper. Six foot thick walls on the bottom to support building.

First Leiter Store B

A: Burnham and Root
D: Masonry only on the bottom floor. The other floors are all metal and glass.

Home Insurance Building B

A: Burnham and Root
D: It is entirely metal and glass construction except for the supports which are covered in brick to prevent fire.

Reliance Building B

A: Burnham and Root
D: Has a curtain wall

Chicago Auditorium B

A: Lois Sullivan
D: It is in Richardsonian style. It is an opera house a hotel and commercial building. It is a "tower with a house"

The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered

A book written by Sullivan. He suggests that a tall building should be proud.

Wainwright building B

A: Lois Sullivan
D: It's form follows it's function. It uses a metal frame. It has more vertical columns in the facade than it is actually using for support.

Bayard Building B

A: Lois Sullivan
D: It has a stronger pier which represents it's frame.

Discourses on Architecture

A book written by Eugene Violet Le Du stating that Gothic architecture is superior and practical in every situation.

Tassel House B

A: Victor Horta
D: A row house with a baroque facade and whiplash interior design.

Van Eetvelde House B

A: Victor Horta
D: A row house. Has a central glass and metal dome.

Horta House B

A: Victor Horta
D: Located in Brussels. It is a row house. Has a hanging balcony and curved holes cut from the wall.

Maison Du Peuple B

A: Victor Horta
D: This was the socialist head quarters of of Brussels. Has a sagging ceiling and avoids strait lines.

Castel Beranger Gate B

A: Hector Guimard
D: He also does hobbit homes.

Paris Metro Stations B

A: Hector Guimard
D: He used mass produced parts to create these.

The Art of Building Cities

A book written by the Viennese Caimile Sitte which says that cities are about having surprises around every corner. He studied Italian churches.

Die Groszstadt B

The great city layout of Vienna made by Otto Wagner. It consisted of large blocks of big buildings and roads.

Secession

Secede from the past and seek out modernity.

Majolica House B

A: Otto Wagner
D: A Row House. Has a painted floral facade

#38 B

A: Otto Wagner
D: A Row house. Classical facade with detailed ornament. Is famous for having a shouting figure and metal disks.

Steinhof Church B

A: Otto Wagner
D: Has a glass dome, which is slightly onion.

Subway stations B

A: Otto Wagner

Post Office Savings Bank B

A: Otto Wagner
D: Has an aluminum bulk head pattern. Inside it is devoid of ornament.

Darmstadt B

A: J.M. Olbrich (Trained by Wagner)
D: In Vienna and commissioned by the prince. It was a housing development that was built to improve living conditions.

Secessionist Gallery B

A: J.M. Olbrich (Trained by Wagner)
D: An art gallery. Just a large empty box to maximize possibility. On top is a giant vegetal ball.

Steiner House B

A: Adolf Loos
D: It is devoid of ornament. Curved roof front, blockish in the back. White building with small black windows.

House for Josephine Baker B

A: Adolf Los
D: Has striped masonry.

House for Tristan Tzara B

A: Adolf Los
D: It was influenced by the DaDa movement (nonesense poetry) It is a row house. Has masonry on the bottom and a carved out rectangular balcony on the second floor.

Futurists

A group of people who believed that the way to build the future was to destroy the present.

La Citta Nuova

A: Antonia Sant' Elia
D: A drafted city plan.

F. T. Marinetti

Devoted his life to futuristic food.

De Stijl

A dutch magazine translated as "the Style." It was about creating abstractions and finding the basic essence of things. Inspired by the artist Piet Mondrian

Neoplasticism

Created by Theo Van Doesberg, it is architecture reduced to planes.

The Red-Blue chair B

Designed by Gerrit Rietveld. It is a series of plains and points.

Schroeder House B

A: Gerrit Rietveld
D: Has pocketed walls and a pipeline balustrade

Rotterdam Cafe B

A: J. P. Oud
D: De Stijl-esque

Tussendijken Housing B

A: J. J. P. Oud
D: Has exposure to sunlight on two walls and has lots of green spaces. Considered an improvement.

Kiefhoek Housing B

A: J. J. P. Oud
D: Has grace due to it's scale, and uses mostly curved forms. It is criticized for following function over De Stijl form. Second story over hangs the first story at some points. Looks slightly like a mushroom.

Eigen Haard Housing B

A: Michel De Klerk
D: Is more expressionistic and has more ornament. It is almost Gothic looking and it has a lot of brick patterns. Has a giant funny shaped spire and strange brick bulges.

Soviet Pavilion B

A: Kazimir Melnikov
D: For a fair. Giant glass panels. Crossing roof elements over the walkway. All red.

Constructivism

The theory that action must be taken in oder to produce art.

The Monument to the third national B

A: Vladamir Tatlin (Originally a painter)
D: A rising red spiral tower which has three shapes hanging from it. It would be taller than the Eiffel Tower.

Moscow Tram Workers Club B

A: Kazimir Melnikov
D: It has a De Stijl quality. Fans out into three sections which protrude from the facade.

Melnikov house B

A: Kazimir Melnikov
D: Is composed of intersecting cylinders and hexagonal windows.

House Built at Darmstout B

A: Peter Behrens
D: His own house. It looks like a cottage with curved brick design and stucco exterior.

Turbine Factory B

A: Peter Behrens
D: It makes electric motors and it's shape is derived by an inner crane and conveyor belt system. If you squint your eyes it looks vaguely like a Greek temple.

Deutscher Werkbund

A group of architects headed by Peter Behrens who may have built the acorn house.

Crystal Chain Architecture Group

A group founded by Bruno Taut, they try to imagine a new world.

Glas Haus B

A: Bruno Taut
D: Another name for the acorn house. Everything is glass.

Cabinet of Dr. Caligari

It is a movie about a sleepwalking murderer which has crazy architectural forms.

Fagus Factory B

A: Walter Gropias
D: A shoe Mill. Has glass corners.

Model Factory at Deutscher Werkbund B

A: Walter Gropias
D: Has a glass tower and glass encloses a corner square.

Bauhaus B

A: Walter Gropias
D: A school of architecture. "house of the Building"
Moved from Weimar to Dassau to Berlin

Itten

A crazy school teacher who taught the beginning design course called vorkurs like a cult.

Sommerfield house company

The school had a contract with them to let their students produce the company buildings.

Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe

The third director of the Bauhaus. A minimalist who liked flat roofed boxes.

Barcelona Pavilion B

A: Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe
D: Has a wall of marble and stainless steal columns. Also is famous for it's statue.

Tugendhat House B

A: Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe
D: Used the same principles of the Pavilion and also included a barcelona chair.

Weissenhof Siedlung B

A: Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe
D: Located in Stuttgart. It was a housing exploration complex. It did not have a street grid and was more healthy than linear cramming.

Albert Speer

Hitlers Architect

Cathedral of Light B

A: Albert Speer
D: Lit up columns where Hitler made his speeches.

Le Corbusier

Actually Charles Edward Jeanneret.

Maison Domino B

A: Le Corbusier
D: An ideal plan for a building. Slabs of concrete and steel columns. Structure is everything.

Citrohan House B

A: Le Corbusier
D: It is a big white box on stilts.

Pavilion De L'Esprit Nouveau B

A: Le Corbusier
D: It uses a system of proportions and is very planer. It has a circular drum part and a tree growing through the building.

Villa Savoye B

A: Le Corbusier
D: It is located in Poisy. It is considered a machine for living. Has stilts, is freely partitioned, has a roof guard, has a free facade and riven windows.

Plan Voisin

A plan to strip Paris of all but it's monuments.

Unite D'Habitation B

A: Le Corbusier
D: It is made of poured concrete. It has a horizontal line to represent the street with with shops above and below it. The shops were not very successful. The rooms were very small and overlapped floors so that each had exposure on two walls.

Notre Dame Du Haut B

A: Le Corbusier
D: A sculptural church. Suggests nave in a modern way. Has an outdoor alter and thick stained glass wall.

Lake Shore Drive apartments B

A: Mies Van Der Rohe
D: Located in America. A giant glass box. Had a barcelona chair.

IIT

A: Mies Van Der Rohe
D: A transformed campus where everything looked alike because Rohe believed that he had found the perfect way of containing space. Used the Boeler plan.

Seagram Building B

A: Mies Van Der Rohe
D: Hard to find. Voted best modern building. Located on Park Ave, NY. Rests on Pilogies. Giant glass box.

Lever House B

A: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
D: Opposite of Seagram, but looks a lot like it.

John Hancock Building B

A: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
D: The structure is emphasized. It has a diagonal grid to prevent wind sway. It also slopes at the sides.

Sears Tower B

A: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
D: Located in Chicago it uses the bundled Reed theory.

Time Warner Building B

A: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
D: Has double towers.

Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture

A book written by Robert Venturi. He suggests that you shouldn't limit yourself and you should combine materials.

Guild House B

A: Robert Venturi
D: It is an old age home made out of the cheapest materials he could find.

Vanna Venturi Building B

A: Robert Venturi
D: A house for his mother. Influenced by the basic pedimented house structure. Has a thermal window and the stairway goes to a light bulb and intersects the chimney.

Duck and Decorated Shed

A duck looks like it's purpose and a decorated shed is plain with an explaining sign.

Pro-Football Hall of fame

It was going to be a duck, but ended up as a decorated shed.

Post Modernism

artistic movement that emerged in the 1980s; artists do not expect rationality

Piazza D'Italia B

A: Charles Modre
D: Has a greek temple entry. Uses modern materials. The aerial view is a map of Italy. Wet-a-pies and and "Italian order" of sausage.

Glass house B

A: Phillip Johnson
D: His house. Only thing not transparent is the bathroom.

AT and T building B

A: Phillip Johnson
D: The high ceilings make it not cost effective. Has a sky lobby and giant gilded lobby statue. It looks like a piece of furniture.

Gehry House B

A: Frank Gehry
D: His house. A traditional house surrounded by a junk yard. Exterior is mainly concrete, fencing and plywood. The kitchen has an asphalt floor.

Guggenheim B

A: Frank Gehry
D: Located in Bilboa. It has titanium sheeting which ripples in the wind.

Blob Buildings B

Started the idea by crumpling paper.

Peter B. Lewis Center B

A: Frank Gehry
D: Uses stainless steel plating and curved brick. A murderer his inside it.

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