Exam 3

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28 terms · Final exam for Psychology

What are the 3 primary ways we begin to learn about sex and sexuality?

Judging without naming, mislabeling, undefined words.

What is the "nature vs. nurture" debate and how does this relate to sexual orientation?

Nature debates over sexuality center around a person's sexual orientation being decided by heredity and genes. Nurture proponents, which have typically included populations that view homosexuality as aberrant or sinful (though not always), have rejected any sole biological influence for homosexuality, and suggest that one's sexual orientation is an individual choice and/or is caused by environmental factors dictated after birth.

What is oxytocin and how does it relate to sexuality?

Oxytocin is best known for roles in female reproduction: 1) it is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, and 2) after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding. Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "love hormone".

What is/are hermaphroditism, intersexuality and the guevedoces?

Hermaphrodites is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Intersexuality is having both male and female anatomical characteristics, including in varying degrees reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics, as a result of an abnormality of the sex chromosomes or a hormonal imbalance during embryogenesis. Guevedoces are children born apparently as females who later (around puberty) begin to develop male characteristics. (The word guevedoce means "testicles at twelve years old.") The guevedoces have XY chromosomes, but because of a genetic mutation, their bodies do not produce the hormone dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for a male appearance at birth. During puberty their bodies begin to produce testosterone, which causes them to go through a typically male adolescence.

What is the definition of personality?

A person's unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior.

How did Freud divide the "mind?"

He separated the mind into 3 parts.
1. Conscious containing those thoughts we are aware of.
2. Preconscious which stores all the thoughts you could bring into the consciousness fairly easily if you wanted to.
3. Unconscious which is the part of the mind we have no direct access to and cannot bring into consciousness except under extreme conditions?

According to Freud, what are our 2 primary drives?

Life or sexual instincts (EROS) and death or aggressive instincts (THANATOS).

What are Freud's 3 mental structures? What is the function of each and how do they relate to each other?

1. ID which is part of the personality present at birth, biological instincts and urges, totally unconscious, and operates on the pleasure principal. 2. Ego which mediates among the demand of the ID, Superego and reality and 3.Super ego which represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and future aspirations.

What is the Pleasure Principle and Reality Principle?

The pleasure principle is the psychoanalytic concept describing people seeking pleasure and avoiding suffering (pain) in order to satisfy their biological and psychological needs. The reality principle describes people choosing to defer gratification of a desire when circumstantial reality disallows its immediate gratification.

What is the Superego's primary defense weapon?

Guilt

Name 4 Defense Mechanisms the Ego uses? (Explain each)

1. Repression which is the most important defense mechanism and is an active effort by the EGO to push unwanted material out of the conscious or keep it from ever reaching the conscious. Repression may be partly responsible for MPD (multiple personality disorder).
2. Sublimation which is our most successful mechanism and is the channeling of negative ID impulses into socially acceptable actions.
3. Displacement is similar to sublimation where the impulse is channeled from the original target but it is expressed to a non-threatening object i.e. you get yelled at by your boss. Your ID wants to yell back, but your EGO keeps that impulse out of consciousness. Instead, you go home and yell at your spouse, the kids or the dog.
4. Denial simply states that certain facts do not exist and more than not just remembering, as in repression, rather we insist something is NOT TRUE, despite evidence to the contrary.

What is psychopathology?

Psycho meaning mind and Pathos meaning disease means Mind-Disease.

What is the earliest evidence of treatment for psychopathology?

Stone Age surgical practice (10,000 BP) Trephing/Trepanning.

In what ways does demonology and witchcraft relate to psychopathology?

It was thought they suffered from mental illness because for most of human history, whenever someone acted strangely, it was assumed they were possessed by the devil.

Who were Asclepius and Hippocrates?

Asclepius is the Greek god of healing. Hippocrates was the father of modern medicine.

What is the Malleus Maleficarum?

Witches Hammer which in 1486 became the "official" manual for hunting witches.

How can one identify a witch?

Question them, various marks on the body (e.g. red spot's on skin), skin insensitivity, and sudden loss of reasoning.

How can one explain the bizarre and unusual confessions of accused witches during the Medieval and Renaissance periods?

If they did not confess they were tortured.Also fear and murder.

How can one begin to identify abnormal behavior?

Behavior that interferes with daily life.

What is the DSM IV?

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.

What are the anxiety-based disorders discussed in class?

Nervous breakdown, adjustment disorder, panic disorder.

What is MPD/DID? How does MPD differ from schizophrenia?

MPD is Multiple Personality Disorder and DID is Dissociative Identity Disorder.A major difference between multiple personality disorder and
schizophrenia is that those with multiple personality disorder aren't born with it.
The age of onset of the two disorders is a major difference.

What do 95% of all those diagnosed with MPD have in common?

Childhood abuse

What are obsessions? What are compulsions? What are some common elements of OCD?

Obsessions are recurring thoughts and compulsions are driven behaviors. Some common elements of OCD are that it is characterized by obsessions or compulsions or both.

Everyone has minor, irrational fears called phobias. Know the names and symptoms of the common phobias discussed in class.

Acrophobia-fear of heights, Astraphobia- fear of storms, Arachnophobia- fear of spiders, Aviophobia- fear of or flying, Claustrophobia- fear of closed spaces, Hematophobia-fear of blood, Micro phobia-fear of germs ,Nyctophobia-fear of darkness/night, Pathophobia-fear of disease, Pyrophobia-fear of fire, Xenophobia- fear of strangers, Zoophobia-fear of animals, Zemmiphobia- Fear of the great mole rat, Arachibutyrophobia- Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.

Name some personality disorders and their symptoms.

Narcissistic Disorder-Full of themselves, think they are the center of the universe, use people, lack empathy but have the ability. Antisocial Personality- Against society, psychopaths/sociopaths, lack of empathy, no conscience, lack the ability to connect to others. Borderline Personality Disorder-Pushes you away or is afraid of you pushing them away, Histrionic which is overly theatrical or melodramatic in character or style.

Know about the signs, symptoms and onset of chronic schizophrenia.

Delusions, hallucinations, disorientation, emotional disturbance, verbal disturbance, motor disturbance.

BONUS MATERIAL: Read in your book about Alzheimer's disease, Eating disorders, Wilhelm Wundt, Little
Albert, Cognitive Therapy & Jean Piaget's Developmental Stages

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