the speed at which the acceleration of a falling object is zero because friction balances the weight
Uniform Circular Motion
Motion at constant speed around a circle with a fixed radius
(physics) a rate of change of velocity (Vector)
Distance moved in a particular direction. (Vector)
distance travelled per unit time (Vector quantity)
distance travelled per unit time (scalar)
the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth
A push or a pull. (N) (Vector)
=mass x gravity
the combination of all forces acting on an object
Newton's First Law
an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an unbalanced force.
Newton's Second Law
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the unbalanced force acting on that body and takes place in the same direction. (F=ma)
Newton's Third Law
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
balance of opposing forces
The change in momentum. (Impulse is equal to the Force XdeltaT) (vector)
The product of mass and velocity (kgm/s) (Vector)
Conservation of Momentum
For a system of isolated bodies the total momentum is always the same.
the inward force on a body moving in a curved path around another body
Law of Universal Gravitation
the scientific law that states that every object in the universe attracts every other object. The force of attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation. F=GmM/r^2
Kepler's Third Law
Equating centripetal force and Newton's law of Universal Gravitation we find that the Period squared/separation is a constant proportion. T^2/r^3=4pi^2/GM
Energy in Orbits
Total energy of an orbiting body is -GMm/2r
The dot product of Force and Displacement moved in the direction of the force.
the energy an object has due to its motion. K=mv^2/2
the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position. P=mgh
Momentum and Kinetic Energy are both conserved.
Totally Inelastic Collision-after a collision the two bodies stick together.
is the work done per unit time.
Useful of work out/energy put in
is a measure of how hot or cold an object is and it is temperature that determines the direction of heat flow.
kinetic energy of a system's constituent particles
the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all particles in the system
the amount of heat needed to raise its temperature by 1 degree celcius. (J/degree Celsius)
Specific Heat Capacity
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of the material by 1 degree Celsius
Phase Changes that require energy includes melting, sublimation and vaporization; phase changes that release energy include condensation, deposition and freezing.
Specific Latent Heat
A material is amount of heat required to change the state of 1kg of the material without change of temperature.
An ideal gas is made up of a large number of perfectly elastic, tiny spheres moving in random motion.
Assumptions for Ideal Gas Law
1. Perfectly Elastic
2. Molecules are spheres
3. Molecules are identical
4. No forces between the molecules. (Except during collisions)
5. Molecules are small
Work done on a Gas
When molecules are given energy. Increase in kinetic energy leads to an increase in temperature and pressure.
Gas does work
When a gas expands, using kinetic energy. The reduction in kinetic energy results in a reduction of temperature.
First Law of Thermodynamics
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
- Adiabatic process: Q = 0
- Isovolumetric (isochoric) process: W = 0
- Isothermal process: ΔU = 0
- Isobaric process: ΔU = W + Q
p-v-T surface projected onto the pressure-specific volume plane
(thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity representing the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for doing mechanical work. S=Q/T
Simple Harmonic Motion
periodic motion in which the restoring force is proportional to the displacement
the force that brings a system back to equilibrium
The maximum displacement from the equilibrium
Time taken for one complete cycle
the number of cycles that the pendulum makes per unit time. 1/T=f. Measured in Hz.
found by multiplying the frequency by 2pi. Describes circular motion
same displacement in same time
Out of Phase
the reduction in the amplitude of a wave due to the dissipation of wave energy
an increase in amplitude that occurs when an oscillating system is forced to oscillate at a frequency other than the natural frequency
a wave that propagates energy
a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate parallel to the direction of wave motion
Show the direction of the waves, right angles to the wavefront
line joining points that are in phase
The distance between , the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
the product of wavelength and frequency.
the resultant wave of the addition of individual displacements of waves
the interference that occurs when two waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude
the crest of one wave overlaps the trough of another and the their individual effect are reduced
the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)
When the wave hits the boundary between the media at an angle, then the wave changes direction.
when light passes sharp edges or goes through narrow slits the rays are deflected and produce fringes of light and dark bands
a wave that appears to stand in one place, even though it is really two waves interfering as they pass through each other
An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
The rayleigh criterion puts a limit on the _____ of two points based on the diffraction of light. Two points are _________ if the central max of diffraction of pattern formed of one point coincides with the first minimum of the other.
the phenomenon in which waves of light or other radiation are restricted in direction of vibration
the charge obtained by an object when it gains or loses electrons
the attraction or repulsion between electric charges.
a region of space where a charged object experiences a force due to its charge.
amount of work per unit charge needed to take a small positive test charge from a place of zero potential to the point.
Electric Field Lines
point in the direction of the electric field vector (away from positive, and towards negative)
are like contour lines on a map which trace lines of equal altitude or electrical potential
the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
The flow of charge. (amp) A