Effects of Historical and Current Oppression
"marginalized groups in our society life under an umbrella of individual, institutional, and cultural forces that often demean them, disadvantage them, and deny them equal access and opportunity"
"historical and current practices have restricted, stereotyped, damaged and oppressed then culturally different in our society"
1) Belief in Superiority- "white privilege: an invisible knapsack of unearned assets that can be used to cash in each day for advantages not given to those who do not fit this mold"
2) Belief in the Inferiority of Others
3) Power to Impose Standards
4) Manifestation in Institutions-"Institutional racism as a set of policies, priorities, and accepted normative patterns designed to subjugate, oppress, and force dependence of individuals and groups on a larger society"
5) The Invisible Veil-"people assume universality: that regardless of race, culture, ethnicity, or gender, everyone shares the nature of reality and truth"
Therapeutic Impact of Ethnocentric Monoculturalism
-increase vigilance and sensitivity
-better readers of nonverbal communication
-leads to minority distrust of the majority society
-May be re-enacted in counseling session
1) African American assume that nonverbal communication is a more accurate barometer of one's true feelings
2)White therapists are often perceived as symbols of the establishment
3)Some culturally diverse clients may lack confidence in the counseling and therapy session..."why do I have to become White in order to be considered healthy?"
Culturally Effective Therapy Therapist
1)can view behaviors in a non judgmental manner
2) can avoid personalizing any hostility
3)can adequately resolve challenges to his or her credibility
Credibility and Attractiveness in Multicultural Counseling
"Multi-culturally helping cannot be approached through any one theory of counseling
1) Theories of counseling are composed of philosophical assumptions regarding the nature of man and a theory of personality, highly culture bound
2)theories of counseling and psychotherapy are composes also of a body of therapeutic techniques and strategies
3)Theories of counseling and psychotherapy have often failed to agree among themselves about what constitutes desirable outcomes
Counseling as Interpersonal Influenced
"counselors who are perceived by their clients as credible (expert and trustworthy) and attractive are able to exert greater influence than are those perceived as lacking in credibility and attractiveness"
Psychological Sets of Clients
"Can be used to understand people's perceptions of the counselor and credibility and receptiveness to influence"
1) The problem solving set: Information orientation
2)The consistency set
3) The identity set
4) The economic set: the person is influenced because of the perceived rewards and punishments that the source is able to deliver
5)The authority set
"characteristics that makes certain individuals appear worthy of belief, capable, entitled to confidence..."
Expertness--"ability variable," how well informed, capable others perceive the counselor
Trustworthiness-"motivation variable," dependent on the degree to which people perceive the communicator as motivated to make invalid assertions
2)evidence of specialized training
3)behavioral evidence of proficiency/competency
"Behavior-expertness, or demonstrating the ability to help a client becomes the critical form of expertness in effective multicultural counseling"
"encompasses factors as sincerity, openness, honesty, or perceived lack of motivation for personal gains."
"Many minorities may perceive that the therapist cannot be trusted unless otherwise demonstrated"
1)Likely to test the therapist regarding issues of confidentiality
2)Onus for proving trustworthiness falls on therapist
3)to prove that one is trustworthy may require self disclosure on the part of the metal health professional