Unit 5: Part II (Key Concepts)

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key concepts and more in-depth vocabulary that was not mentioned

4 Parts of the Federal Bureaucracy

Cabinet Departments, Independent Agencies, Independent Regulatory Commissions, Government Corporations

Cabinet Departments

tend to be larger with broadest missions

Independent Executive Agencies

the government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory commissions, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president's pleasure.

Independent Regulatory Commissions

a government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest. It also judges disputes over these rules. Sometimes known as "alphabet soup".

Government Corporations

like business organizations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. ex: the postal service

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission; regulates trading of stocks

FDA

Food and Drug Administration; regulates the food/drug industries, establishes standards for the sale of healthy food and medical products

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency; handles officially declared states of emergency

CDC

Center for Disease Control; researches and educates on diseases and medications

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency; protects the environment e.g. clean water, standards for emissions, etc.

National Security Council

(NSC) an office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, VP, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant.

Council of Economic Advisers

(CEA) a three-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy. Prepares the Economic Report of the President

Electoral Mandate

the perception that the voters strongly support the president's character and policies.

legislative veto

The ability of Congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find the legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.

trade bloc

a group of countries agreeing to eliminate trade tariffs with each other.

free trade

the elimination of tariffs

constitutional requirements to be president

35 years old, natural-born citizen, resident of U.S. for the last 14 years

25th amendment

this amendment permits the VP to become acting president if both the VP and the president's cabinet determine that the president is disabled. this amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.

Constitutional Powers given to the President

convene/adjourn Congress, Commander in Chief of the army, make treaties, veto bills, appoint judges, grant Pardons, appoint temporary members of Congress, take care that laws be faithfully executed

Who created the EOP?

FDR

Name the first and last departments in order of creation.

State ; Homeland Security

Members of the EOP are appointed or elected?

appointed.

Name one president who chose to serve only one term

LBJ, Rutherford B. Hayes, James K. Polk

Name the only two presidents ever to be impeached

Andrew Johnson, Clinton

Who presides over the trial when the president is impeached?

the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

street-level bureaucrats

have a considerable amount of administrative discretion because they are in constant interaction with the public. For example, a policeman can choose to issue you a speed ticket or a warning.

administrative discretion

bureaucratic leaders can have various responses to a problem based on the situation and their own decision

"thickening"

adding more layers of leadership and more leaders in each layer

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