4 Parts of the Federal Bureaucracy
Cabinet Departments, Independent Agencies, Independent Regulatory Commissions, Government Corporations
Independent Executive Agencies
the government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory commissions, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president's pleasure.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
a government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest. It also judges disputes over these rules. Sometimes known as "alphabet soup".
like business organizations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. ex: the postal service
Food and Drug Administration; regulates the food/drug industries, establishes standards for the sale of healthy food and medical products
Environmental Protection Agency; protects the environment e.g. clean water, standards for emissions, etc.
National Security Council
(NSC) an office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, VP, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant.
Council of Economic Advisers
(CEA) a three-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy. Prepares the Economic Report of the President
the perception that the voters strongly support the president's character and policies.
The ability of Congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find the legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
constitutional requirements to be president
35 years old, natural-born citizen, resident of U.S. for the last 14 years
this amendment permits the VP to become acting president if both the VP and the president's cabinet determine that the president is disabled. this amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
Constitutional Powers given to the President
convene/adjourn Congress, Commander in Chief of the army, make treaties, veto bills, appoint judges, grant Pardons, appoint temporary members of Congress, take care that laws be faithfully executed
have a considerable amount of administrative discretion because they are in constant interaction with the public. For example, a policeman can choose to issue you a speed ticket or a warning.
bureaucratic leaders can have various responses to a problem based on the situation and their own decision