Music Appreciation Final

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A great twentieth-century composer who was also a leading scholar of the folk music of his native land was who?

Béla Bartók.

Béla Bartók's principal performing medium was the what?

Piano.

From 1907 to 1934 Béla Bartók taught __________ at the Budapest Academy of Music, and gave recitals throughout Europe.

Piano.

Béla Bartók was a leading authority on?

Peasant music.

Béla Bartók evolved a completely individual style that fused folk elements with?

Changes of meter and a powerful beat, twentieth-century sounds, and classical forms.

While not rejecting any influence, Béla Bartók emphasized that the strongest influence on his music was?

Hungarian.

While remaining within the framework of a tonal center, Béla Bartók often used _________ in his music.

Harsh dissonances, polychords, and tone clusters.

Béla Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra is/are what?

Is his most popular work, received its title because it was written for an orchestra of virtuosi, and is romantic in spirit because of its emotional intensity, memorable themes, and vivid contrasts of mood.

Charles Ives's father was a(n)?

Bandmaster.

After graduating from Yale, Charles Ives did what?

Went into the insurance business.

Charles Ives's music contains elements of what?

Revival hymns and ragtime, patriotic songs and barn dances, and village bands and church choirs.

Who plays Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut (1912)?

Charles Ives.

George Gershwin grew up in?

New York, New York.

George Gershwin usually collaborated with the lyricist?

Ira Gershwin.

Porgy and Bess is a(n)

Opera.

Who plays Rhapsody in Blue?

Gershwin.

Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue opens with a?

Solo clarinet.

Since World War II, musical styles have what?

Taken many new directions and changes.

All of the following are major developments in music since 1950 except the?

Continued composition of symphonies in the classical style.

Composers began to shift from tonality to the twelve-tone system because what?

They discovered it was a compositional technique rather than a special musical style.

The twelve-tone composer whose style was most imitated in the 1950s and 1960s was?

Anton Webern.

Twelve-tone compositional techniques used to organize rhythm, dynamics, tone color, and other dimensions of music to produce totally controlled and organized music are called?

Serialism.

In chance, or aleatory music the composer does what?

Chooses pitches, tone colors, and rhythms by random methods.

Minimalism as an artistic movement was a?

Reaction against the complexity of serialism and the randomness of chance music.

Minimalist music is characterized by?

A steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns.

Minimalist music grew out of the same intellectual climate as minimalist art, which features?

Simple forms, clarity, and understatement.

Many composers since the mid-1960s have made extensive use of quotations from earlier music as an attempt to?

Improve communication between the composer and the listener.

Since 1950 many composers have returned to?

Tonal music.

Intervals smaller than the half step are called?

Microtones.

Although jazz began in bars and brothels, it is now considered?

An American art form.

When a voice is answered by an instrument, or when one instrument (or group of instruments) is answered by a chorus, the pattern is referred to as?

Call and reponse.

The immediate sources of jazz include?

The American band tradition, the blues, and ragtime.

Ragtime are?

A style of composed piano music, performed at a moderate march tempo, and generally in duple meter.

Who plays Maple Leaf Rag?

Joplin.

Which of the following categories of black folk music is not considered one of the sources for the blues?

Gospel.

The poetic and musical form of the blues was popularized in the early years of the twentieth century through the publication of Memphis Blues and St. Louis Blues, composed by?

William C. Handy.

The blues are?

Usually follow a 12-bar pattern as a basis for improvisation, can be happy or sad, fast or slow, and may be vocal or instrumental.

Blues music is usually written in ________ time.

4/4.

Vocal blues often?

Contain sexual references, are intensely personal, and deal with the pain of betrayal, desertion, and unrequited love.

Lost Your Head Blues

By Bessie Smith. Her Lost Your Head Blues is a well-known example of blues form and performance style. The lyrics express the feelings of a woman who plans to leave her man because she's "been treated wrong."

The most famous blues singer of the 1920s, known as the "empress of the blues", was?

Bessie Smith.

The backbone of a jazz ensemble is its?

Rhythm section.

Which element of jazz refers to the creation and performance of music simultaneously?

Improvisation.

New Orleans style Dixieland flourished in the United States?

From 1900 to 1917.

The melodic instruments, or cornet, clarinet, and trombone, of a Dixieland band were known as the?

Front line.

The most distinctive feature of New Orleans style jazz was?

Collective improvisation by the front line.

Hotter Than That (1927)

Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five. This performance shows how New Orleans style developed in Chicago during the 1920s. The emphasis is on improvisatory solos, based on the harmonic structure of the 32-bar tune Hotter Than That. Collective improvisation—so important in earlier New Orleans style—is restricted to the introduction and the last of four choruses.

The jazz style called swing flourished in America from?

1935-1945.

The typical swing band had about fifteen musicians, grouped into three sections:

Saxophones, brasses, and rhythm.

One of the most important solo instruments of the swing era was the?

Saxophone.

Short repeated melodic phrases frequently used during the swing era are called?

Riffs.

Duke Ellington was an important figure in?

Swing.

Who plays "Take A Train"?

Duke Ellington.

Bebop, as a musical style, developed in the?

Early 1940s.

Bebop differed from earlier jazz forms in that it?

Was meant for attentive listening, not dancing.

In bebop, the beat of the music was mainly marked by the?

Pizzicato bass

A typical bebop group might include?

A saxophone, a trumpet, and a rhythm section of piano, bass, and percussion.

One of the greatest of all jazz improvisers and a towering figure among bebop musicians was the saxophonist?

Charlie Parker.

A bebop performance generally began and ended with?

A statement of the main theme by one or two soloists in unison.

Who plays "KoKo"?

Charlie Parker.

Cool jazz emerged when?

During the late 1940s and early 50s.

Cool jazz was?

Related to bop but was calmer and more relaxed in character.

The following can be said about free jazz:

It disregarded regular forms and established chord patterns, It can be compared to chance music, and It began in the early 1960s.

The leading figures in the free jazz movement were?

John Coltrane and Ornette Coleman.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of fusion?

The percussion section is smaller than in earlier jazz.

The bebop musician who spearheaded developments in cool jazz and then jazz rock is?

Miles Davis.

A _________ is a type of theater that fuses a dramatic script, acting, and spoken dialogue with music, singing, and dancing.

Musical comedy.

Which of the following is not a source of the American musical?

The mistrel show.

A golden era of American musical theater was created from about?

1920-1960.

The lyrics for West Side Story were written by?

Stephen Sondheim.

The composer, conductor, and pianist who began his spectacular career as substitute conductor of the New York Philharmonic on only a few hours' notice was?

Leonard Bernstein.

In addition to his famous musicals, Leonard Bernstein also wrote successful?

Ballets, choral works, and symphonies.

Leonard Bernstein was influenced, particularly in his ballets, by?

Stravinsky and Copland.

The musical loosely based on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is?

West Side Story.

In West Side Story, the two star-crossed lovers are?

Tony and Maria.

West Side Story contains what?

An unprecedented fusion of song and drama with electrifying violent choreography,

Who wrote "America"?

Bernstein. The energetic ensemble America brilliantly combines Latin-flavored song and dance. Two young women of the Sharks gang, Rosalia and Anita—Bernardo's girlfriend— express opposing feelings about their homeland, Puerto Rico, and their adopted country, America. The ensemble creates a lighter mood after the emotional intensity of previous scenes and helps develop the character of the witty and high-spirited Anita.

In West Side Story the introduction to "America" is based on a type of Puerto Rican song and dance music known as?

Seis.

In West Side Story the tempo used in the main part of the song "America" comes from a type of Mexican dance known as?

Huapango.

In West Side Story the song "America" is given a Hispanic flavor with the use of alternations between?

6/8 and 3/4 meter.

The Latin atmosphere heard in "America" from West Side Story is achieved through the use of such
South American instruments as?

Claves, guiro, and guitar.

The dramatic importance of dance throughout West Side Story is illustrated through Bernstein's frequent use of?

Instrumental interludes intended only for dancing.

Who writes "Tonight"?

Bernstein. In the Tonight ensemble, Bernstein projects several different emotions at the same time.

Which of the following is not a function of film music?

Provides songs for the actors to sing.

Movie soundtracks can contain what?

Original music, previously existing compositions, and music in a wide variety of styles.

Since the 1960's most film music is composed by?

Freelance composers.

The idea of musical themes for characters (leitmotifs) was developed by which 19th Century composer?

Wagner.

Which of the following does not have a distinctive leitmotif?

Darth Vader, James Bond, and the shark from Jaws (all have distinct leitmotif)

"Vertigo"

It is directed by Alfred Hitchcock with a score by Bernard Herrmann

One important American composer of film scores who collaborated with Alfred Hitchcock on Vertigo and Psycho was?

Bernard Hermann.

In the "Tower Scene" from Vertigo composer Bernard Hermann raises the tension of the evolving dramatic situation through his use of such orchestral effects as?

String tremolos, sustained dissonant chords, and rapid ostinatos and repeated notes.

An important American composer of film scores who wrote scores for many films including Jaws, Star Wars, Indiana Jones, and Harry Potter is?

John Williams.

Rock has been defined as?

Vocal music with a hard, driving beat, often featuring electric guitar accompaniment and heavily amplified sound.

Early rock grew mainly out of __________, a dance music of African Americans that fused blues, jazz, and gospel styles.

Rhythm and blues.

A folk-like, guitar-based style associated with rural white Americans is known as?

Country and western.

One of the first big hits of an early important rock and roll group was ___________________ performed by Bill Haley and His Comets.

Rock Around the Clock,

Who was Rocking Around the Clock performed by?

Bill Haley and His Comets.

In the 1950's it was customary to have white performers record songs already released by black performers. This practice was called?

Covering.

During the 1960's much of the rock music by black performers was called?

Soul.

______________ is described as a type of soul music that blended rhythm and blues with popular music.

Motown.

The influence of The Beatles on American rock music may be seen through later performer's use of?

"Classical" and nonwestern instruments, new electronic effects, and unconventional scales, chord progressions, and rhythms.

Who performed "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band "?

The Beatles.

During the 1960s, rock absorbed elements of ______ music and dealt with contemporary issues.

Folk.

Which one of these genres of music did not become popular in the 1970s?

Rap.

Many of the bands in the second British invasion (1980s) used electronic technology and often featured?

Outlandish costumes.

The instrument that most transformed rock from its early dependence on piano based instrumentation was?

The electric guitar.

Rock is based on a powerful beat in quadruple meter with strong accents on _____________ of each bar.

The second and fourth beats

Which form is common in rock music?

12-bar blues form, 32-bar AABA song form, and Strophic and verse-chorus form.

Rock songs do what?

Tend to have short melodic patterns that are repeated several times.

The harmonic progressions of rock are usually what?

Quite simple.

Who performed "Raiders March"?

Williams.

Concert 4 Orchestra is by who?

Bartok. Instruments are played in pairs.

Bartok

Was Hungarian. Folk music inspired him.

Charles Ives

From America. Inspiration folk music from America.

Charles Ives' music

Was difficult to perform. Had polytonality.

Gershwin did what?

Borrowed elements from jazz.

Afro-American Symphony

Third movement by William Grant Still. Note: Blues and spiritual influence. Tenor banjo and ternary form.

Copland's music

Was originally ballet music.

Copland's contributions to American music

Organized concerts, books, magazine articles, taught, etc.

Why does Copland's music have American sound?

Folk, music, blues, rag time, jazz, etc.

Alberto Ginastero

From Argentina. Came to America in 1945. Attracted internation attention 1950s. His music was originally for ballets.

Characteristics of music since 1945

Increased use of the 12-tone system, Serialism, Chance music, minimalist music, musical quotation, tonal music and a return to tonality, electronic music, "Liberation of Sound", mixed media, and rhythm and form.

Serialism

Extension of the 12-tone system. Ordered other musical elements.

Chance music

1950s-opposite approach of serialism. Composers choose pitches, tone colors, rhythms by random methods. John Cage: 4'33" (1952)

Minimalist music

Reaction against serialism (complexity) and chance music (randomness.) Steady pulse, clear tonality, insitent repetition of short melodic patterns. Like minimalist art: simple forms, clarity, understatement. John Adams. Short Riding in a Fast Machine.

Musical quotation

Extensive use of quotation from earlier, usually familar music. Represents conscious break with serialism. Improves communication with audience. Quoting Handel. Vulch?

Microtones

Intervals smaller than half step.

John Cage

Created preparedJazz piano. Enabling more sound, wrote a percussion piece to where he opened up more sound.

What does American jazz sound like instead of concert?

Tone colors, performance techniques, and call and response.

Jazz

Developed in U.S.--Performed in streets, bars, brothels, dance halls of new Orleans, other southern cities. Its music is rooted in improvisation, characterized by sycopated rhythm, steady beat, unique tone colors and performance techniques.

Roots of jazz

Blend elements of several cultures, call and response, band music, blues, and ragtime were immediate sources.

Backbone of jazz

Rhythm section.

Call-and-response techniques

Voice/instruments answered by another voice/instrument.

Syncopated rhythms

playing offbeat

"King of Ragtime"

Scott Joplin. Maple Leaf Rag: AA BB A CC DD

Ragtime

Composed piano music. Usually in duple meter at moderate march tempo. Right hand highly syncopated. Left hand nkeeps steady beat.

Characteristics of blues

Grew out of African American music. 1920s- 12-bar blues form (Bessie Smith.) 1930-Country blues (Robert Johnson.) 1940s- Urban blues (Muddy Waters.) Vocal blues is intensely personal.

Pattern of blues

Always in 3 line stanzas: a a' b

New Orleans, Dixie Style

New Orleans major jazz center 1900-1917. Dixieland jazz: 5 to 8 performers. Front line of melodic instruments (cornet, clarinet, trombone.) Front line players improvised all together- collective improvisation; polyphonic.

What kind of music will you find in a film?

All kinds. Most music is commissioned for specific films.

What's the function of film music?

Provides momentum and continuity. Suggests mood, atmosphere, character, and dramatic action. Most music is commissioned for specific films. Some use of pre-exisitng compositions. Very diverse in styles. Aaron Copland, Bernand Herrmann, John Williams, James Horner, and Danny Elfman.

What did Dixieland that's characteristic?

Improvised at the same time.

Swing

Duke Ellington. Large groups. Was popular in 1935-1945. Was uneven 8th (a) note. Was for listening.

Be bop

Fast, smaller group. Pisaccato bass- different characteristics. You listen to this music, instead of dancing. Complex music. Charley Parker, KoKo.

Jazz Rock

Late 1960s, rock became potent influence. Style combined improvisation with rock forms, rhythms, timbre. Combined acooustic and electric instruments. Bass plays more melodic roles. Larger percussion section. Exercpt from Miles Run from the Voodoo Down (1969.) Slow beat, unchanging harmony. Constant background of rockostinatos in electric bass. Repeated rhythm.

Music and Image

Musical themes (leitmotifs) associated with specific characters, objects, emotions, ideas in films. Technique from music dramas of Wagner.

Musical tensions used to portray tension: Vertigo

Opening loud strings temolos, Scottie's anxiety-3 sustained dissonant chords. Rapid whirring ostinato suggests terror.

Rock

Tone color: Electric guitar- amplified and often manipulated. Typical: singer(s), 2 guitars, bass guitar, drum set, keyboard. Occasional use of other instruments. Frequent vocal effects (shout, scream, falsetto.) Rhythm: Powerful beat in (4/4) meter; accounts on 2 and 4. Beat usually subdivided equally. Rhythms become more complex in 70s and 80s. Form, melody, and harmony: Common forms- 12-bar blues form; 32-bar AABA song form. Strophic form (folk music); verse-chorus (strophic variant.) Short; repeated melodic patterns. Harmonically simple= 3 or 4 chords.

How were The Beatles influential?

They tried doing things other groups havent done. They took risks and succeeded.

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