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In art, a __________ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.

line

Light against dark or dark against light create visual differences in ___________.

value

From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?

chiaroscuro

A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a ___________.

prism

The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____________.

complementary

Actual texture is primarily experienced through the sense of ___________.

touch

In art, __________ refers to the distribution of the actual or apparent weight of the compositional elements.

balance

The classical Greek sculptor Polykleitos was the first known artist to apply the principle of __________ in order to achieve overall naturalistic balance in the human body's stance.

weight shift

__________ refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or movement, or a specific culture or period.

style

__________ refers to the portrayal of people and things as they actually are, with no idealization or distortion.

realism

__________ is the study of the themes and symbols in the visual arts: the figures and images that lend works their underlying meanings.

iconography

__________ is both a very realistic portrait of rural life in America and an icon of American art due to its many commercial reproductions on cereal boxes, greeting cards, posters, and the like.

Grant Wood's American Gothic

Broadly defined, __________ is the art of running an implement that leaves a mark over a surface.

drawing

Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a drawing that was meant to be used __________.

as a preparatory study for another project

In its original meaning, a __________ was a full-scale preliminary drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.

cartoon

A form of charcoal was used by our primitive ancestors to create images on __________.

cave walls

The unforgiving medium of __________ was widely used for drawing from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely replaced by the lead pencil.

silverpoint

Fifteenth-century artist Gentile da Fabriano applied thinly hammered sheets of gold to his Adoration of the Magi tempera panel using a technique known as __________.

gilding

In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and animal glue known as _______

gesso

The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself to__________.

rapid sketches and preparatory studies

Intaglio prints are made from __________ into which lines have been incised.

metal plates

Lithography, invented in the beginning of the 19th century by a German playwright, is a planographic, or __________, printing process in which a __________ is used.

surface; stone slab

The word photography is derived from Greek roots that mean __________.

to write with light

By the 1850s, photographic portrait studios became quite popular and began to serve the needs of __________.

the growing middle class

Which of the following is not an additive sculptural process?

carving

Made from the seat and handlebars of an old bicycle, __________ is probably the best known assemblage of all time.

Picasso's Bull Head

According to Marcel Duchamp, the function of a readymade was to __________.

prompt the viewer to think and think again

The prehistoric Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of __________ construction, in which two stones were set vertically and a third stone laid across them, creating an opening beneath.

post and lintel

Originally a derisive term, __________ uses mass produced, light, easily handled cuts of wood and metal nails for the assembly of millions of homes and small buildings on site.

balloon framiing

The 17,000 almost identical small homes built in post-World War II Levittown, New York, are a reflection of the __________.

need for mass suburban housing for growing metroplitan areas

The Incan fortress of Machu Picchu is considered to be __________ construction, as it was built without any mortar.

dry masonry

Which of the following types of ceramics is fired at the lowest temperature?

earthenware

Glass that has been spun into fine filaments and is used for insulation is known as __________.

fiberglass

The __________ developed the process of glass blowing and thus made __________ commonplace.

Romans; glass containers

The __________ process utilizes a series of dye baths and wax applications to create a design on fabric.

batik

No smoking signage is an excellent example of a clear, utilitarian form of typography known as a __________.

pictogram

One of the earliest and most famous "fertility" figurines from the Paleolithic period is the __________.

Venus of Willendorf

Much of ancient Egypt's art and many of its monuments were, in one way or another, linked to __________.

death or the woship of the dead

In New Kingdom Egypt, Amenhotep IV started a revolution in both religion and the arts when he changed his name to Akhenaton to honor the sun god and became a __________. The period of his reign is known as the __________.

monotheist; Amarna period

The ancient Greeks considered themselves to be the center of the universe or "the measure of all things," a concept known as __________.

humanism

The circles, squares, patterning, and rigid wedge-shaped torsos depicted on the Dipylon Vase indicate that it is a fine example of the __________ period of Greek art.

geometeric

The Pantheon's dome is __________ to lessen the weight of it both physically and visually.

coffered

Although much Roman art is stylistically derived from Greece, portrait sculptures like Head of a Roman are notable for their incredible __________, made possible by __________.

realism; wax death masks

Perhaps the most famous surviving tapestry is the 230-foot long Romanesque period Bayeux Tapestry, which describes __________ in a continuous narrative.

the invasion of England by William the Conqueror

Unlike Romanesque sculpture, Gothic sculptural figures __________.

have drapery folds that are soft and reveal anatomy

The word __________ is derived from the French and means rebirth.

Renaissance

Considered a true Renaissance man, __________ excelled in engineering, the natural sciences, anatomy, music, and technological prototypes, not to mention creating some of the world's best loved paintings.

Leonardo da Vinci

When Michelangelo was only 27, he carved the 13½-foot statue of David from __________.

a single piece of almost unworkable marble

Gustave Courbet's manifesto reads "To record the manners, ideas, and aspects of the age as I myself saw them - to be a man as well as a painter - in short to create a living art - that is my aim." Courbet is considered the father of __________.

realism

Francisco Goya, who was neither Neoclassicist nor Romantic, is best known for his __________, one of the most famous of which is The Third of May, 1808.

graphic representation of man's inhumanity to man

The dissolution of surfaces and study of local color was central to __________ art, which is dramatically evident in a series of canvases depicting __________ from a variety of angles, during different times of day and seasons.

Claude Monet's; Rouen Cathedral

The Post-Impressionist Georges Seurat's painting technique is known as __________, which is a meticulous application of pigment that he derived from the study of __________.

Pointillism; color theories

In his __________, Vincent van Gogh's vibrant colors, characteristic long, thin strokes and feverish application of paint creates an emotionalism that turns a sleepy town into a cosmic display.

starry night

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's deformity led to an alienation from his family so he instead found a home in __________, as depicted in At the Moulin Rouge.

the cabarets, cafes and bordellos of Paris

Auguste Rodin's The Burghers of Calais is considered a groundbreaking Impressionist sculpture because of its __________.

intense realism and highly textured surfaces that capture the play of light

Wassily Kandinsky, a major proponent of __________, is recognized as the first painter of __________.

Der Blaue reiter; pure abstraction

__________ shut down the Bauhaus in 1933, forcing many of its faculty, including Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, to flee to the United States.

the Nazis

For his Twittering Machine, Paul Klee was influenced in part by __________.

ethnographic and children's art

Surrealism began as a literary movement after World War I, and the group based their writings on the nonrational using a technique known as __________ writing.

automatic

Along with their interest in psychoanalysis, the Surrealists also incorporated some of the attitudes and techniques of the __________ movements.

Dada and Fatastic art

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