Understanding Nutrition 101 mid-term

Created by LisaFritts 

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Chapters 1-7

The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can hydrolyze the fat is know as ______

Emulsification

which of the following body organs does NOT secrete digestive enzymes? liver, stomach, pancreas, or salivary glands

Liver

What stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice

Secretin

Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content? Brown colored, refined, enriched, whole-grain

whole-grain

height, weight, head-circumference or fat-fold measurements that are used to evaluate an individual's nutrition status are
examples of ____ ____

anthropometric data

_____ ____ cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body

essential nutrients

what is one function of the gallbladder

stores bile

the purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process
is to

make chyme more neutral.

According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of
what 2 vitamins MUST be listed on the package label?

Vitamin A and C

mastication

act of chewing

What vitamin are vegetarians most likely to have
deficiencies in?

vitamin B12

when nutrients are transported from intestinal cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them

liver

where are most nutrients absorbed?

Small intestine

what structure controls the passage of material from
the small intestine to the large intestine?

ileocecal valve

What are the "ABCDMV" principles of diet planning?

Adequacy, balance, kcal control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety

After swallowing in what order does food pass
through the regions of the GI tract?

Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

what typically does not get digested but stimulates
intestinal muscle contractions?

Fiber

Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on
the __ __ __

Estimated Average Requirement

What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine

Liver

Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate? Starches, white sugar, disaccharides, monosaccharides

Starches

What is the primary function of insulin?

Lowers blood glucose levels

The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as

Denaturation

What is needed for proper fat digestion?

Lipase, and Bile

Which of the following is the primary factor that differentiates one amino acid from another?

the side group

The chemical reaction that splits starch into monosaccharides is called

hydrolysis

what is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?

Condensation

the structure of cell membranes is made up of many

phospholipids

Which of the following is not an enzyme involved with protein digestion?

Lactase

what is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?

glycogen

Which fatty acid is essential to the human body?

Omega 3

What type of diet would provide a person foods low in saturated fat and cholesterol?

vegetarian diet

What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol?

Triglyceride

In general polyunsaturated fats are considered to be

liquid at room temp.

Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins as large fats?

Lymphatic

What element is found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats

nitrogen

what type of nutrient is starch

Complex carbohydrate

in which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found. Plant foods, health foods, animal products, protein-rich foods

Plant foods.

the disease most common today in the U.S. include all of the following except. cancer, diabetes, tuberculosis, diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

tuberculosis

what are the basic building blocks of protein

amino acids

Which of the following increase a persons risk of heart disease? trans fat, saturated fat, low fiber diet, all of the above.

all of the above

what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?

Epiglottis

which of the following is an organic nutrient? Protein, fiber, minerals, vitamins

Fiber

after swallowing in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?

Stomach, duodenum, jejunum,ileum, colon

What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?

Chyme

Which of the following is true regarding an essential nutrient?

Cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body.

Gram for gram which of the following provides the most energy?

Fats

which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?

liver

what is the function of mucus in the stomach?

protects stomach cells from gastric juices.

Which of the following is an anthropometric measurement?

body weight

which of the following is not a component of pancreatic juice?

Bile

what is the function of bile?

emulsifies fats

what is the name of the protections on the inner surface of the small intestine?

Villi

what is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?

small intestine

into what section of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?

Duodenum

what is mastication?

the act of chewing

Describe peristalsis?

wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles.

what is meant by the term "motility" in reference to the GI tract?

the speed of peristalsis and food moving through the GI tract

among the GI tract organs which has the strongest muscles?

Stomach

Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all of the following except. a)it kills bacteria, b)it activates pancreatic lipase, c) it activates pepsinogen, d) it promotes denaturing(uncoiling) of proteins

it activates pancreatic lipase

why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?

Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment.

Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?

Stomach

which of the following would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?

Fiber

What is one function of the gallbladder?

stores bile

which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?

vitamins

what is the first vessel to receive absorbed water soluble vitamins?

capillaries

immediately after absorption what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?

lymphatic

what is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?

Heart

Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice? Gastrin, secretin, glucagon, gastric-inhibitory peptide

Secretin

The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release?

cholecystokinin (CCK)

what are the six classes of nutrients?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water.

of the six classes of nutrients which are organic meaning they contain carbon?

carbohydrates,lipids, proteins, vitamins

what are the energy yielding nutrients?

carbohydrates (4g) Fat(9g) Protein (4g)

what is EAR

Estimated average requirement defines the amount of a nutrient that supports a specific function in the body for half of the population.

What is RDA

Recommended Dietary allowance- based on the Ear and establishes a goal that will meet the needs of almost all healthy people

what is EER

defines the average amount of energy intake needed to maintain energy balance

when people eat the foods typical of their families or geographic region their choices are influenced by

heritage or tradition

the nutrient found in most abundantly in both food and the body is

water

studies of populations that reveal correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence are

epidemiological studies

a deficiency caused by an inadequate dietary intake is a

primary deficiency

the diet planning principle that provides all the essential nutrients in sufficient amounts to support health is balance, variety, adequacy, moderation

adequacy

which of the following is consistent with the Dietary guidelines for Americans.

balance the food you eat with physical activity

according to the USDA food guide, added fats and sugars are counted as

Discretionary Kcalories

Foods within a given food group of the USDA Food guide are similar in their contents of

Vitamins and minerals

In the exchange system each portion of food on any given list provides about the same amount of

energy

enriched grain products are fortified with

iron, thiamin riboflavin, niacin, and folate

the pancreas neutralizes stomach acid in the small intestine by secreting

bicarbonate

all blood leaving the GI tract travels first to the

liver

digestion and absorption are coordinated by the

hormonal system and the nervous system

Gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin are examples of crypts, enzymes hormones, goblet cells

hormones

carbohydrates are made up of ?

Carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen

what are the Monosaccharides (simple sugars)

glucose, fructose, galactose

what are the disaccharides (pairs of monosaccharides)

maltose, sucrose, lactose

What are the polysaccarides (chains of monosaccharides)

glycogen, starches, fibers

blood glucose regulation depends on what two pancreatic hormones?

insulin and glucagon

what happens in a condensation reaction?

a chemical reaction in which two reactants combine to yield one larger product.

what happens in a hydrolysis reaction

a chemical reaction in which a major reactant is split into two products with the addition of a hydrogen atom

disaccharides include

surcose, maltose, and lactose

the making of a disaccharide from two monosaccharides is an example of digestion, hydrolysis, condensation, gluconegoenesis

condensation

the significant difference between starch and cellulose is that

digestive enzymes can break the bonds in starch but in cellulose

the ultimate goal of carbohydrate digestion and absorption is to yield fibers, glucose, enzymes, amylase

glucose

the enzyme that breaks a disaccharide into glucose and galactose is

lactase

the storage form of glucose in the body is

glycogen

with insufficient glucose in metabolism, fat fragments combine to form dextrins, mucilaes, phytic acids, ketone bodies

ketone bodies

what does the pancreas secrete when blood glucose rises when blood glucose falls?

insulin, and glucagon

what percentage of the daily energy intake should come from carbohydrates?

45-65

what is the predominate lipids found in food and the body

Triglycerides

what does hydrogenation do

it makes polyunsaturated fats more saturated and creates trans-fatty acids

what are the different types of polyunsaturated fats

omega3, omega-6

saturated fatty acids

are fully loaded with hydrogen's

A triglyceride consists of

Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol

the difference between cis and trans-fatty acids is

the configuration around the double bond

which of the following is not true Lecithin is an emulsifier a phospholipid an essential nutrient a constituent of cell membranes

an essential nutrient

chylomicrons are produced in the

small intestine

transport vehicles for lipids are called

lipoproteins

which part of its chemical structure differentiates one amino acid from another

its side group

isoleucine, leucine, and lysine are

essential amino acids

in the stomach hydrochloric acid

denatures proteins and activates pepsin

Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions are

enzymes

if an essential amino acid that is needed to make a protein is unavailable the cells must

break down proteins to obtain it

protein turnover describes the amount of protein

synthesized and degraded

Marasmus develops from

inadequate protein and energy intake

the protein RDA for a healthy adult who weighs 180 is

65 g day

hydrolysis

reaction splits a molecule into two

gluconeogenesis

the making of glucose from a non carbohydrate source (protein)

ketone bodies

the metabolic products of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells

ketosis

an undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine

what percentage of the daily energy intake should
come from fat

20-35%

what percentage of the daily energy intake should
come from protein

10-35%

fatty acid

an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogen's attached and an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other

monounsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons

point of unsaturation

the double bond of a fatty acid where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure

polyunsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that lacks four or more hydrogen atoms and has two or more double bonds

saturated fatty acid

a fatty acid carrying the maximum number of hydrogen atoms

unsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that lacks hydrogen atoms and has at least one double bond between carbons.

linoleic acid

an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and three double bonds

antioxidants

a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen

Hydrogenation

a chemical process by which hydrogen's are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce he number of double bonds making the fats more saturated and more resistant to oxidation.

cis

on the near side of

trans

on the other side of

lecithin

on of the phospholipids. both nature and the food industry use Lecithin as an emulsifier to combine water-soluble and fat-soluble ingredients that do not ordinarily mix.

sterols

compounds containing a four-ring carbon structure with any of a variety of side chains attached

lipoproteins

transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph and blood

in the body triglyerides

provided energy, insulate against temperature extremes protect against shock, help the body use carbohydrates and protein

artificial fats

zero-energy fat replaces that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities f naturally occurring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion

olestra

a synthetic fat made from sourose and fatty acids that provides 0 kcal per gram. also know as sucrase polyester

peptide bond

a bond that connects the acid end of the one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain

pepsin

a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein.

acidosis

higher than normal acidity in the blood and body fluids.

antigens

substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system

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