In general, what do research papers describe?
Original findings, including methodology and results written by the scientists who performed the work
Documents that synthesize, summarize or evaluate primary literature are called what?
Primary papers are written by who?
Secondary reports are written by who?
May be written by scientists, journalists or others.
Research articles represent science in __________, while textbooks describe the ___________ of that process.
Process - outcome
measures how many times the articles published in a journal are cited by other articles
The measures how many times the articles published in a journal are cited by other articles
articles that can be freely accessed and disturbed
The choice of _____________ is crucial to an effective search.
Once you've identified useful search terms and narrowed the results down, what else can be used to further narrow the search?
Using the LIMIT function
Searches that return between _____ and _____ articles are a good starting point.
Why should you not let free availability of articles restrict your range of search for articles?
Because library may subscribe to that/other journal(s) or you may be able to obtain a specific article through interlibrary loan (check with librarian)
Most biology research papers contain what specific sections?
Citation, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements and references.
A Materials and Methods section describes what?
Exactly how the work was done
The results section portrays what?
The data gathered/observed
What does the format of papers help with?
enables research to be judged according to the standards of the scientific community, help you maintain a critical stance, allows you to quickly access information, impact the scientific process (scientists know what will be expected from them for a paper and keep this in mind during the research/data collection)
The boss of a research group is called what? Where is his name found?
Principle investigator (MD, PhD, etc.)
What is the position of the principle investigator?
Ultimately, they are the one responsible for the work done in their lab.
The first author on research article is usually who?
The one who does the most work on a project (often a senior scientist, post-doc or graduate student)
The principle investigator is often listed where on the sequence of authors?
At the very end as last name
Why are there often several different dates on the front of a paper?
Dates shown usually include date from when article was received, date accepted and printed date
The time gap usually seen between the date article was received and the date it was printed was probably do to what?
it being peer reviewed and/or something needed to be fix/changed/added.
What is an abstract and what is usually in it
succinct summaries of research papers. Usually included statements of the study's purpose, experimental approach, key results and conclusions.
_____________ are generally well-established explanations
_____________ are usually tentative explanations that have not been fully tested
_____________ have broader implications than ______________, which tend to have a narrower focus
generally well established explanations
usually tentative explanations that have not been fully tested
hypothesis are often stated where in a paper?
Towards in the end of the introduction
in what ways in science methodology a cyclical process?
Observation → accumulate evidence → theory → hypothesis → prediction → experiment → results → (which then can go back into the cycle at accumulation of evidence)
what is necessary to have an acceptable materials and methods section?
Enough detail so that other scientists can repeat the experiments
change in response to other variables.
Variables that change in response to other variables
____________ variables are often the study's focus
measurement of _____________ variables may require sophisticated techniques
For example, in study of volume regulation in fish cells, cell volume is the ____________ variable. Why?
dependent variable - because experiments may be examining how it changes in response to other variables
potentially influence the dependent variable. In some cases they are directly manipulated by the experimenter; other times they are measured but not manipulated
Variables that potentially influence the dependent variable. In some cases they are directly manipulated by the experimenter; other times they are measured but not manipulated
For example, in study of volume regulation in fish cells, what is an ___________ variable. Why?
independent variable - osmolarity of the fluid outside cells in an independent variable because it is predicted to affect cell volume - it can also be manipulated by placing cells into solutions of different concentrations.
Scientists seeking to measure the influence of independent variables strive to control other variables; these are called _____________ variables.
Control groups usually receive treatment where the __________ variable is unchanged from the normal or ordinary value.
_________ groups can serve as a comparison to the experimental groups
the control and experimental groups are treated identically expert for the difference in the ____________ variable.
Correlative studies are most appropriate for describing the _________ in nature
___________ studies are most appropriate for describing the patterns in nature
in ______________ studies, scientists do not manipulate independent variables, but instead exploit preexisting variation in them.
______________ studies are also referred to as retrospective studies, cross-section studies or observational studies
In _____________ studies, scientists manipulate an independent variable and measure the effect on a dependent variable
scientists manipulate an independent variable and measure the effect on a dependent variable
experimental groups receive a treatment while separate control group does not
In ____________ designs, experimental groups receive a treatment while separate control group does not
Independent variables are ordinarily shown on the ____-axis
Dependent variables are ordinarily shown on the ____-axis
The ____________ section mostly reports factual information
materials and methods
The superficial interpretation may be found in the ___________ section
results (and discussion section for in-depth interpretation)