IB Biology HL Final Exam 2011

388 terms by ecurley

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Normal Distribution

Most variation in data gives a bell-shaped frequency distribution called .......

Standard Deviation

Used to asses how far the values are spread above and below the mean.

t-Test

Used to find out whether there is a significant difference between the means of two populations.

Functions of life

Metabolism
Response
Homeostasis
Growth
Reproduction
Nutrition

Cell Theory

-Living organisms are composed of cells
-Cells are the smallest units of life
-Cells come from pre-existing cells

Exceptions to the cell theory

-muscle fibers
-hyphae
-extracellular material

Differentiation

How cells in a multicellular organism can develop in different ways.

Emergent properties

The whole organism is greater than the sum of it's parts, because of the complex interactions between cells.

Stem cells

Cells that have the capacity to self-renew by cell division and to differentiate.

Surface area to volume ratio

As the size of any object increases, the ratio between the surface area and the volume decreases.

Magnification

Size of image / size of specimen

Scale bar

A line added to a micrograph or drawing to help show the actual size of the structures.

Binary fission

Prokaryotic cells divide in two by a process called ......

Integral proteins

Proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer

Peripheral proteins

Proteins on the surface of the membrane.

Fluidity

This allows membranes to change shape in a way that would be impossible if they were solid.

Hormone binding sites

A site exposed on the outside of the membrane that allows one specific hormone to bind.

Diffusion

The passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

Facilitated diffusion

Diffusion of particles with the aid of channel proteins.

Solvent

A liquid in which particles dissolve.

Solute

Dissolved particles.

Osmosis

The diffusion of water.

Active transport

The movement of substance across membranes using energy from ATP.

Extracellular components

The plant cell wall and glycoproteins are examples of .....

Interphase

The longest stage in the cell cycle.

G1

During interphase, a period of growth and DNA transcription/ protein synthesis.

S phase

During interphase, the period during which all DNA in the nucleus is replicated.

G2

During interphase, the period in which the cell prepares for division.

Mitosis

The process by which the nucleus divides to form two genectically identical nuclei.

Cytokinesis

The process of splitting the cytoplasm to to form two cells.

4 stages of mitosis

-prophase
-metaphase
-anaphase
-telophase

Tumour

This is formed when cells divide out of control.

Cell cycle

The series of events that produces new cells.

Water

Two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom.

Hydrogen bond

The type of bond between water molecules and between base pairs in DNA.

Properties of water

-cohesion
-solvent
-heat capacity
-boiling point
-cooling effect/evaporation

Commonest chemical elements of life

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen

Organic compounds

Compounds containing carbon that are found in living organisms.

Inorganic compounds

Compounds that contain no carbon.

Sulphur

Needed to make two of the twenty amino acids that proteins contain.

Calcium

Helps the body to produce strong bones and teeth.

Phosphorous

Part of the phosphate groups in ATP and DNA molecules.

Iron

Needed to make cytochromes and oxygen-binding sites on hemoglobin.

Sodium

Helps with nerve impulses and solute concentrations within cells.

Polypeptide

A chain of many amino acids.

Triglyceride

Three fatty acids and a glycerol.

Hydrolysis reaction

The reverse of a condensation reaction.

Examples of monosaccharides

Glucose, galactose, fructose

Examples of disaccharides

Maltose, lactose, sucrose

Examples of polysaccharides

Starch, glycogen, cellulose

Functions of lipids

-energy storage
-insulation
-buoyancy

Nucleotide

A sugar, phosphate and base.

Complementary base pairing

In DNA:
A - T
C - G

Semi-conservative model

Each DNA molecule consists of one new strand and one old strand conserved from the parent dna molecule

Genes

These store the information for making proteins.

Transcription

The copying of the base sequence of a gene by making and RNA molecule.

Translation

When tRNA creates proteins on a ribosome.

Codon

A group of three bases.

Enzymes

Globular proteins which act as catalysts of biological reactions.

Denaturation

Changing the structure of an enzyme or other protein so that it can no longer carry out it's function.

Substrates

The reactants in reactions catalyzed by enzymes.

Active site

A region on the surface of an enzyme to which substrates bind.

Lock and key theory

Theory explaining enzyme specificity.

Factors that affect enzyme activity

Substrate concentration, pH, temperature.

Lactose

Glucose plus galactose.

Cellular respiration

A controlled release of energy, in the form of ATP, from organic compounds in cells.

Measuring rates of photosynthesis

-production of oxygen
-uptake of carbon dioxide
-increases in biomass

Genetics

The study of variation and inheritance

Gene

A heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic.

Genome

The whole of the genetic information of an organism.

Gene locus

The position of a gene on a chromosome.

Allele

A form of a gene.

Gene mutation

A change to the base sequence of a gene.

Base substitution

Smallest possible gene mutation when one base is replaced by another base.

Example of a base substitution

Sickle cell anemia

Diploid

Two full sets of chromosomes.

Haploid

One set of chromosomes.

Homologous chromosomes

Chromosomes that have the same genes as each other, but not necessarily the same alleles.

Reduction division

Meiosis is deceived as a ......

Karyotype

The number and appearance of the chromosomes in an organism.

Amniocentesis

A sample of amniotic fluid is removed from the amniotic sac for karyotyping.

Chorionic villus sampling

Cells are removed from fetal tissues in the placenta for karyotyping.

Non-disjunction

Non-separation of chromosomes.

Down syndrome

An extra 21st chromosome.

Homozygous

Having two identical alleles of a gene.

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles of a gene.

Dominant allele

An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype in a heterozygous individual and in a homozygous individual

Recessive allele

An allele that only has an effect on the phenotype in a homozygous individual.

Segregation

When the F1 hybridsroduce gametes, the two alleles separate.

Sex linkage

The association of a characteristic with gender, because the gene controlling the characteristic is located on a sex chromosome.

Carrier

When a person has a recessive of an allele of a gene but it does not affect the phenotype because a dominant allele is also present.

Test cross

An individual that might be heterozygous is crossed with an individual that is homozygous recessive.

PCR

When DNA is copied again and again to produce many copies of the same molecule.

Gel electrophoresis

A method of separating mixtures of proteins, DNA or other molecules that are charged.

Genetically modified organisms

Organisms that have genes transferred to them.

Clone

A group of genetically identical organisms or a group of genetically identical cells derived from a single parent cell.

Species

A group of organisms with similar characteristics which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

Nomenclature

The naming of species

Genus

Species that are similar are grouped into a ....

Family

Genera that are similar are grouped into a ....

Order

Families that are similar are grouped into an ....

Class

Orders that are similar are grouped into a ....

Phylum

Classes that are similar are grouped into a .....

Kingdom

Phyla that are similar a grouped into a ....

Bryophytes

Mosses

Filicinophytes

Ferns

Coniferophytes

Conifers

Angiospermophytes

Flowering plants

Porifera

No clear symmetry, attached to a surface, pores through body, no mouth or anus
i.e. Sponges

Platyhelminths

Bilaterally symmetric, flat bodies, unsegmented, mouth but no anus
i.e. Planaria, tapeworms, liverflukes

Mollusca

Muscular foot and mantle, shell usually present, segmentation not visible, mouth and anus
i.e. Slugs, snails, clams, squids

Cnidaria

Radially symmetric, tentacles, stinging cells, mouth but no anus
i.e. Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones

Annelida

Bilaterally symmetric, bristles often present, segemented, mouth and anus
i.e. Earthworms, leeches, ragworms

Arthropoda

Bilaterally symmetrical, exoskeleton, segmented, jointed appendages
i.e. Insects, spiders, crabs, milipedes

Natality

Offspring are produced and added to the population.

Mortality

Individuals die and are lost from the population.

Immigration

Individuals move into the area from elsewhere and are added to the population.

Emigration

Individuals move out of the area to live elsewhere.

Population change

(natality + immigration) - (mortality + emigration)

Evolution

The cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population.

Evidence for evolution

Homologous anatomical structures, fossil records, selective breeding of domesticated animals.

Natural selection

The better adapted individuals tend to survive and reproduce more than the less well-adapted individuals.

Variation

Essential for natural selection and therefore for evolution.

Example of evolution in action

Multiple antibioticcresistance in bacteria.

Community

A group of populations living together and interacting with each other in an area.

Trophic levels

Position of an organism in the food chain.

Autotrophs

Organisms that synthesize their own organic molecules from simple inorganic substances.

Heterotrophs

Organisms tht obtain organic molecules from other organisms.

3 types of heterotrophs

Consumers, detritivores, saprotrophs

Light

Initial energy source

Consumers

Organisms that ingest organic matter that is living or recently killed.

Detritivore

Heterotroph that invests dead organic matter.

Saprotrophs

Heterotroph that lives on or in dead organic matter, secreting enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.

Food web

A diagram that shows all the feeding relationships in a community.

Energy pyramids

Diagrams that show how much energy flows through each trophic level in a community.

Ecosystem

A community and it's abiotic environment.

Ecology

The study of relationships in ecosystems.

Greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide, methane, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide.

Greenhouse effect

Heat retention by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Global warming

Greenhouse effect and it's correlation with rising temperatures on earth.

Habitat

The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.

Amylase

Source: salivary glands
Substrate: starch
Products: maltose
pH: 7

Protease

Example: pepsin
Source: wall of stomach
Products: small polypeptides
pH: 1.5

Lipase

Source: pancreas
Products: triglycerides
pH: 7

Absorption

Happens in the small intestine.

Assimilated

After food becomes absorbed, it becomes .....

Villus

Structure that absorbs in small intestine.

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