# AP HuG - Chapter 3: Population Geography

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AP Human Geography Barron's book vocabulary for Chapter 3: Population Geography.

### Population geography

A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.

### Geodemography

A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.

### Doubling time

The period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely.

### Demography

The study of human populations, including their temporal and spatial dynamics.

### Demographers

People who study human populations.

### Total fertility rate

The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.

### Infant mortality rate

The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.

### Child mortality rate

Number of deaths per thousand children within the first five years of life.

### Maternal mortality rate

Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.

### Life expectancy

The average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and even between races.

### Crude birth rate (CBR)

The number of births per year per 1,000 people.

### Crude death rate (CDR)

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

### Natural increase rate (NIR)

The difference between the number of births and number of deaths within a particular country.

### Demographic accounting equation

An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population within a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration; add the people coming in (births + immigration) and subtract the people leaving (deaths - emigration).

### Migration

A long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another.

### Immigration

The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there.

### Emigration

The process of moving out of a particular country, usually the individual person's country of origin.

### Push factors

Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place, such as a harsh climate, economic recession, or political turmoil.

### Pull factors

Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities.

### Voluntary migration

Movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area.

### Chain migration

The migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family members to an existing community.

### Forced/involuntary migration

The migration event in which individuals are forced to leave a country against their will.

### Intervening obstacles

Any forces or factors that may limit human migration.

### Refugees

People who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved.

### Internal migration

The permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular country.

### Rust Belt

The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.

### Cotton Belt

The term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region. The same area is now known as the New South or Sun Belt because people have migrated here from older cities in the industrial north for a better climate and new job opportunities.

### Sun Belt

U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.

### Thomas Malthus

Author of Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) who claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, and thereby that, eventually, population growth would outpace food production.

### Exponential growth

Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year; compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population.

### Neo-Malthusian

Advocacy of population control programs to ensure enough resources for current and future populations.

### Demographic transition model

A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.

### Age-sex distribution

A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.

### Population pyramids

A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.

### Baby boom

A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.

### Cohort

A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.

### Generation X

A term coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland to describe people born in the United States between the years 1965 and 1980. This post-baby-boom generation will have to support the baby boom cohort as they head into their retirement years.

### Baby bust

Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. As such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast to the baby boom, in which fertility rates were quite high.

### Dependency ratio

The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or too young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor; usually expressed in the form n:100, where n equals the number of dependents.

### Population density

A measurement of the number of persons per unit land area.

### Arithmetic density

The number of people living in a given unit area.

### Physiologic density

A ratio of human population to the area of cropland, used in less developed countries dominated by subsistence agriculture.

### Carrying capacity

The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support.

### Overpopulation

A value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area's current population.

### Zero population growth

Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs.

### Census Tract

Small county subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.

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