the study of the physical form and structure of urban places
a large and densely populated urban area
relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
Keith Urban packs in a big crowd when touring cities
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops.
enable a formation of cities, coincides with social stratification, the excess of agricultural crops.
too much green
one of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige
group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others
First Urban Revolution
The innovation of the city, which occurred independently in five separate hearths.
Mesoamerica, Nile River Valley, Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, Huang He and Wei River Valley
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers"
Nile River Valley
second urban hearth dating back to 3200 bce, fertile land in North Africa near the Nile River
Indus River Valley
Chronoligcally the third urban hearth dating back to 2200 BCE., a valley in northeren Pakistan that is between the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush mountain ranges
Huang He and Wei
Rivers in present-day China; it was at the meeting of the Huang He and Wei Rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was established around 1500 BCE.
chronologically the fifth urban hearth, dating to 200 bce, Located in present day Mexico and Central America, first Native American civilizations did not emerge in river valleys.
"high point of city"; a common feature of ancient Greek cities; an elevated site for most impressive structure in city, usually a temple
a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
the focal point of ancient Roman life combining the functions of the ancient Greek acropolis and agora
The location of a place relative to other places.
the creepy doll is in the middle when related to the two creepy cats
region adjacent to every town and city within which its influence is dominant
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
top swoopy thing is the main city, as it goes down, cities grow smaller
Central Place Theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions(Sunbelt) of the United States.
the division of a city into different regions or zones (e.g. residential or industrial) for certain purposes or functions (e.g. housing or manufacturing).
Area of a city with a relatively uniform land use (e.g. an industrial zone or residential zone)
Central Business District
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge. (CBD)
the urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs
A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual).
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
Developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
The very poorest parts of cities that, in extreme cases, are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia.
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to the minority group in that region; illegal
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting outmigration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties.
The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.
The rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents.
Houses that new owners bought with the intention of tearing them down to build larger homes
Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs.
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
urban design originating in the US during the 1980s to work against sprawl; characterized by organized urban planning, suburban infill (filling in unused space), and are designed to be walkable.
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's gross national product
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
Spaces of Consumption
Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services' driven primarily by the global media industry.