AP HuG - Chapter 4: Cultural Geography

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AP Human Geography Barron's book vocabulary for Chapter 4: Cultural Geography.

Cultural geography

The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.

Ecumene

The proportion of the earth inhabited by humans.

Artifacts

Any item that represents a material aspect of culture.

Tradition

A cohesive collection of customs within a cultural group.

Customs

Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group.

Syncretic

Traditions that blend cultural traits from different contemporary sources.

Dynamic

Traditions that change over time.

Cultural traits

The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.

Cultural complex

The group of traits that define a particular culture.

Cultural hearths

Locations on Earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.

Transculturation

The expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, and other related processes.

Possibilism

Belief that people control their own destinies and deal with various environmental factors in ways that are dynamic and contingent and that unfold unpredictably over history.

Language family

A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago, that have since evolved different characteristics.

Indo-European family

Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the world's people.

Sino-Tibetan family

Language area that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.

Language group

A set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics.

Romance language

Any of the languages derived from Latin including Italian, Spanish, French, and Romanian.

Dialect

Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form.

Isoglosses

Geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet.

Pigdin

Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet; has some characteristics of each language.

Creole

A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.

Esperanto

A constructed international auxiliary language incorporating aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create a universal means of communication; created by L.L. Zamenhof.

Lingua franca

An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages; usually used for quick and efficient communication.

Official language

Language in which all government business occurs in a country.

Polyglot

A multilingual state.

Language extinction

This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people; has greatly accelerated during the past 300 years.

Acculturation

The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.

Cultural extinction

Obliteration of an entire culture by war, disease, acculturation, or a combination of the three.

Literacy

The ability to read and write.

Toponyms

Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.

Universalizing religion

Religion that seeks to unite people from all over the globe.

Local religion

Religion that is spiritually bound to a particular region.

Evangelical religion

Religion in which an effort is made to spread a particular belief system.

Missionary

A person of a particular faith that travels in order to recruit new members into the faith represented.

Monotheism

The worship of only one god.

Polytheism

The worship of more than one god.

Global religion

Religion in which members are numerous and widespread and their doctrines might appeal to different people from any region of the globe.

Ethnic religion

Religion that is identified with a particular ethnic or tribal group and that does not seek new converts.

Shamanism

A religion in which a single person takes on the role of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world.

Animism

Most prevalent in Africa and the Americans, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.

Christianity

The world's most widespread religion; monotheistic, universal religion that uses missionaries to expand its members worldwide; three major categories are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.

Denomination

A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems.

Islam

A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet; based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.

Pilgrimage

A journey to a place of religious importance.

Fundamentalism

The strict adherence to a particular doctrine.

Buddhism

System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people - such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization.

Hinduism

A cohesive and unique society, most prevalent in India, that integrates spiritual beliefs with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system.

Caste system

System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from the cycle of life and win their place in heaven.

Judaism

The first major monotheistic religion. It is based on a sense of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live.

Ethnicity

Refers to a group of people who share a common identity.

Race

A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.

Ethnic cleansing

The systematic attempt to remove all people of a particular ethnicity from a country or region either by forced migration or genocide.

Multicultural

Having to do with many cultures.

Minority

A racial or ethnic group smaller than and differing from the majority race or ethnicity in a particular area or region.

Ethnic neighborhood

An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background.

Ghetto

A segregated ethnic area within a city; tend to be in the least desirable areas.

Diaspora

People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity.

Folk culture

Refers to a constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional societies in which they developed.

Pop culture

Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; and producing and consuming machine-made goods.

Cultural imperialism

The dominance of one culture over another.

Culture

A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government.

Genocide

A premeditated effort to kill everyone from a particular ethnic group.

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