Kin 335 - Exercise Physiology Study Guide

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Kin 335 - Exam 4 Study Guide

What glands release hormones directly into the blood?

Endocrine glands

What alters the activity of tissues that possess receptors to which it can bind?

Hormones

What determines the magnitude of the effect at the tissue level?

Plasma hormone concentration

Rate of insulin secretion by the pancreas is dependent on what? (2)

Magnitude of input | Stimulatory or inhibitory factors

Hormone receptor interactions: the magnitude of effect depends on what? (3)

Concentration of hormone | Number of receptors on the cell | Affinity of receptor hormone

Hormone receptor interactions: in what ways do hormones bring about effects? (3)

Altering membrane transport | Stimulating DNA to increase protein synthesis | Activating second messengers (Cyclic AMP/Calcium)

Identify 4 factors that influence the concentration of a hormone in the blood.

Rate of secretion of hormone from endocrine gland | Rate of metabolism | Quantity of transport protein | Changes in plasma volume

What could cause plasma volume to decrease?

Dehydration

How does a steroid hormone act on a cell?

Attach to cells receptor site | Hormone/receptor complex moves into the cell | Attaches to gene in nucleus | Stimulates protein synthesis

What are molecules that relay the signals of hormones like epinephrine (adrenalin), growth factors, and others, and cause some kind of change in the activity of the cell? | They greatly amplify the strength of the signal.

Second messengers

____ is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the cell membrane | It is involved in the activation of protein kinases and regulates the effects of adrenaline and glucagon | It also regulates the passage of Ca2+ through ion channels

Cyclic AMP

What controls activity of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands (influenced by positive and negative input)?

Hypothalamus

____ are any of several hormones produced in the hypothalamus and carried by a vein to the anterior pituitary gland where they stimulate the release of anterior pituitary hormones; each of these hormones causes the anterior pituitary to secrete a specific hormone.

Hypothalamic releasing factor

Hormones are secreted from what?

Endocrine glands

Epinephrine: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Adrenal Medulla | Increases: HR, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis

Norepinephrine: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Adrenal Medulla | Increases: HR, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis

Glucagon: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Pancreas | Promotes the mobilization of fatty acids and glucose

Insulin: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Pancreas | Promotes the storage of glucose, amino acids, and fats

Cortisol: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Adrenal Cortex | Long-term exercise and fasting | Promotes the use of free fatty acids as fuel; Stimulates glucose synthesis; * Promotes protein breakdown for gluconeogenesis and tissue repair

Aldosterone: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Adrenal Cortex | Change in aldosterone during exercise | Maintains plasma Na+ and K+; Regulates blood pressure

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Posterior Pituitary Gland | High plasma osmolality; Low plasma volume (due to sweating); * Exercise (increases significantly at 60% VO2) | Reduces water loss from body to maintain plasma volume

Thyroxine (T4): What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Thyroid Gland | Maintains metabolic rate

Growth Hormone: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Anterior Pituitary Gland | Increases during exercise: Mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue; Aids in the maintenance of blood glucose | Essential for normal growth: * Stimulates protein synthesis and long bone growth

Estrogen: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Ovaries | Establish and maintain reproductive function; Estrogen levels vary throughout the menstrual cycle

Testosterone: What is the release site/release stimulus/predominate action for this hormone?

Testes | Anabolic steroids promote tissue (muscle) building; Androgenic steroids promote masculine characteristics

What hormones are involved in calcium regulation? (2)

Calcitonin | Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate into small intestine? (Insulin, Glucagon, and Somatostatin)

Pancreas

What does somatostatin function to do?

Controls rate of entry of nutrients into the circulation

What do anabolic steroids function to do?

Promotes tissue (muscle) building

What do androgenic steroids function to do?

Promotes masculine characteristics

What is glycogenolysis?

Breakdown of muscle glycogen

What controls glycogenolysis? (2)

Cyclic AMP | Calmodulin

____ exercise results in greater and more rapid glycogen depletion.

High-intensity

____ is a powerful simulator of glycogenolysis and is increased by ____ exercise.

Plasma epinephrine | High-intensity

Muscle glycogen utilization crossover concept: | Low intensity = ____ metabolism | High intensity = ____ metabolism

Low intensity = fat metabolism | High intensity = carb metabolism

What are the fast acting hormones of the maintenance of plasma glucose during exercise? (4)

Norepinephrine and epinephrine | Insulin and glucagon

What actions do the fast acting hormones of the maintenance of plasma glucose during exercise produce? (3)

Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis | Mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue

What does the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue do? (3)

Increases use of FFA as a fuel | Blocks entry of glucose into cells | Spares blood glucose

What are the permissive and slowly acting hormones of the maintenance of plasma glucose during exercise? (2)

Cortisol | Growth hormone

What action does the permissive and slowly acting hormones of the maintenance of plasma glucose during exercise produce? (1)

Act in a permissive manner to support actions of other hormones

What role do catecholamines have in substrate mobilization?

What happens to epinephrine and norepinephrine during exercise? (2)

Increases linearly during exercise | Favor the mobilization of free fatty acids and maintenance of plasma glucose

What happens to epinephrine and norepinephrine following exercise? (2)

Decrease in plasma levels | Parallel reduction in glucose mobilization

What is our "fed" hormone that promotes the uptake, and storage of glucose, amino acids and what does "fed" mean?

Insulin | Increases with a meal high in starch/glucose and/or amino acids

Glucagon release is stimulated by what? (2)

Low blood sugar (glucose) | Exercise

Glucagon mobilizes energy stores by doing what? (2)

Promoting breakdown of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids in adipose cells, into blood | Stimulates liver to produce glucose

Glucagon stimulates the liver to produce glucose by way of what? (2)

Glycogenolysis | Gluconeogenesis

What happens to insulin during exercise? (3)

Plasma insulin decreases during exercise (up to 60-70% VO2 max) | Prevents rapid uptake of plasma glucose by non-contracting muscles | Favors mobilization of liver glucose and lipid free fatty acids

What happens to insulin in trained subjects during exercise? (2)

Much faster decrease in plasma insulin | Increase in plasma glucagon

What are the effects of cortisol? (3)

Stimulates free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue | Mobilizes amino acids for gluconeogenesis | Blocks entry of glucose into cells

Plasma Cortisol (during exercise): | Low intensity = ____ in plasma cortisol | High intensity = ____ in plasma cortisol | Switchover occurs at about ____% VO2 max

Low intensity = decrease in plasma cortisol | High intensity = increase in plasma cortisol | Switchover occurs at about 60% VO2 max

Growth hormone increases ____ during exercise?

Linearly

What hormone, during exercise, is important in the maintenance of blood glucose?

Growth Hormone

During exercise, growth hormone does what in the maintenance of blood glucose? (3)

Decreases glucose uptake | Increases free fatty acid mobilization | Enhances livers production of glucose (gluconeogenesis)

Graphically describe the changes in the following hormones during graded exercise: insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

Graphically describe the changes in the following hormones during prolonged exercise: insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

Effect of Exercise Intensity on Fatty Acid Mobilization: | During ____ exercise: fatty acid mobilization = utilization

Light

Effect of Exercise Intensity on Fatty Acid Mobilization: | During ____ exercise: fatty acid mobilization < utilization initially, so plasma concentration initially goes down, but over time fatty acid mobilization becomes > utilization

Moderate

Effect of Exercise Intensity on Fatty Acid Mobilization: | During ____ exercise: fatty acid mobilization << utilization

Heavy

What is an organism called that maintains its body temperature at a constant level, usually above that of the environment, by its metabolic activity?

Homeotherm

Heat balance: in order to maintain a constant temperature what must happen?

Heat loss must equal heat gain

Where does heat gain mostly come from?

Metabolism

What are the principle means of involuntary heat production?

Shivering | Action of hormones (Thyroxine (T4) and Catecholamines)

What is the transfer of heat via infrared rays where there is no physical contact between surfaces and 60% of heat loss occurs at rest defined as? (Small roll in heat loss during exercise)

Radiation

What is heat loss due to contact with another surface defined as?

Conduction

What is a form of conductive heat loss whereby heat is transferred to air or water? (Small contribution to heat loss during exercise, but is increased with cycling or swimming)

Convection

What is heat transferred via water (sweat) on the skins surface and makes up 25% of heat loss at rest defined as? (Most important means of heat loss during exercise)

Evaporation

What is the body's "thermostat"?

Hypothalamus

What is stimulated and what happens when the body's core temperature increases? (1) (2)

Anterior hypothalamus is stimulated | Commencement of sweating | Increased skin blood flow

What is stimulated and what happens when the body is exposed to cold? (1) (2)

Posterior hypothalamus is stimulated | Increased heat production (shivering) | Decreased skin blood flow

What happens as ambient temperature increases? (3)

Heat production remains constant | Decreased convection and radiant heat loss | Increased evaporation

The production of what stimulates heat loss?

Metabolic energy (heat)

List the heat loss types in order from most important to least important. (3)

Evaporative, Convection, Radiative

The increase in body temperature with work rate is a ____ relationship.

Linear

In regards to the body's temperature increase during exercise, temperature is proportionate to ____ muscle mass.

Active

With increased exercise intensity, what happens to heat production? (1) Convective and radiant heat loss? (1) Evaporative heat loss? (1)

Heat production increases | Lower convective and radiant | Higher evaporative

What happens when exercising in hot humid environments? (2)

Inability to lose heat (higher core temp, higher sweat rate)

What can result if you are unable to lose heat? (2)

Impaired performance | Hyperthermia

What physiological adaptations occur during acclimatization to heat? (5)

Increased plasma volume (most important) | Earlier onset of sweating | Higher sweat rate | Reduced sodium chloride loss in sweat | Reduced skin blood flow

How many days does heat acclimatization take to occur?

10-14 days

What is the physiological response to a cold environment and what could this result in? (2)

Enhanced heat loss | May result in hypothermia

What physiological adaptations occur during cold acclimatization? (3)

Improved ability to sleep in the cold | Increased non-shivering thermogenesis | Higher intermittent blood flow to hands and feet

What happens to atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes?

Decreases

Define: Hypoxia, Normoxia, and Hyperoxia.

Hypoxia: Low PO2 (altitude) | Normoxia: Normal (Sea Level) | Hyperoxia: High PO2

What effect does lower PO2 at altitude have on short-term anaerobic performance?

No effect

What effect does lower air resistance have on short-term anaerobic performance?

May improve performance

What effect does lower PO2 have on long-term aerobic performance?

Poorer aerobic performance

What happens to plasma volume initially at altitude?

Decreases (more red blood cells per unit of blood, thus more oxygen per unit of blood)

What happens to heart rate and cardiac output initially during submaximal work to compensate for less oxygen?

Increase

What happens during maximal work that limits oxygen delivery and uptake at altitude?

HR, SV and Q decrease

Cardiovascular Responses to Altitude: Shifts in Hb-O2 dissociation curve to the ____.

Left

What happens to anaerobic metabolism at altitude?

Increases

What happens to lactic acid production at altitude?

Increases

Is there more or less lactic acid production at maximal work rates at altitude than at sea level?

Less

Effect of altitude on VO2 max: What is the decreased VO2 max due to at higher altitudes?

Decreased arterial PO2 | Decreased cardiac output

What happens to ventilation at submaximal exercise at altitude? What happens to heart rate?

Higher heart rate | Higher ventilation

Why does ventilation increase at altitude?

Fewer O2 molecules per liter of air

What senses the decrease in PaO2?

Carotid Bodies

What is the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR)?

Increase in ventilation induced by hypoxia

If you are less sensitive to HVR, what do you have a higher chance of?

Altitude sickness

How does our bodies adapt to higher altitude? | ____ in number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and blood viscosity | Short-term ____ in plasma volume (later reversed) | ____ in muscle fiber areas and total muscle area | ____ in capillary density | ____ in pulmonary ventilation | ____ in VO2 max with initial exposure (does not change much after initial change)

Increase in number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and blood viscosity | Short-term decrease in plasma volume (later reversed) | Decrease in muscle fiber areas and total muscle area | Increase in capillary density | Increase in pulmonary ventilation | Decrease in VO2 max with initial exposure (does not improve much)

Acclimatization (Adaptation) to Altitude: Shift in the Hb-O2 dissociation curve to the ____.

Right

Do people who grow up at altitude have complete adaptations in arterial O2 contents and VO2 max? What about those new to altitude?

Yes | People who are new to altitude have adaptations that are less complete

Changes in Muscle Structure: Both oxidative and glycolytic enzymes are ____ with chronic hypoxia.

Reduced

Why does the effect of training at altitude on VO2 max vary among athletes?

Due to degree of saturation of hemoglobin

Who shows the greatest decrease of VO2 max at altitude?

Athletes with the highest VO2 max at sea level

What happens to red cell mass on return to sea level?

Increases

Does altitude training improve sea level performance?

Not proven that altitude training improves sea-level performance | Difficult to study since intensity and volume are reduced at altitude

Does "living high/training low" really work?

Doesn't really work and is difficult to do

What can you do to train for optimum altitude performance? (3)

Compete within 24 hours of arrival | Train at altitude for 2 weeks before competing | Increase VO2 max at sea level

Can you train as intensely at high altitude?

No

Explain the role that hyperventilation plays in helping to maintain a high oxygen-hemoglobin saturation at extreme altitudes. (2)

Drives down PCO2 and H+ in blood | Allows more O2 to bind with hemoglobin at same PO2

Occurs when a system is exercised at a level beyond which it is normally accustomed.

Overload

What is the training effect that is specific to the muscle fibers involved (type of exercise) defined as?

Specificity

Gains that are lost when overload is removed is defined as what?

Reversibility

____ studies examine groups of differing physical activity at one time. (Record differences between groups)

Cross-sectional

____ studies- examine groups before and after training (Record changes over time in the groups)

Longitudinal

What are the expected changes in VO2 max with endurance training programs? What population type has the greater increase?

15% (average) - 40% (strenuous or prolonged activity) | Greater increase in highly deconditioned or diseased subjects

Genetic disposition accounts for ____% of VO2 max.

50-70%

State the VO2 max values for diseased, sedentary, active and athletic populations.

Disease: ~20 ml/kg/min | Sedentary: ~40 ml/kg/min | Active: ~50 ml/kg/min | Athletic: ~65 ml/kg/min

What is the formula for VO2 max using HR, SV, and a-vO2 difference? What is the most important variable?

VO2 max = HR max x SV max x (a-vO2) max | SV max is the most important variable

What are the improvements in VO2 max due to? (2)

50% increased SV | 50% increased avO2

Mechanisms to Increase SV max: What is preload (EDV)?

Volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole

Mechanisms to Increase SV max: What is afterload (TPR)?

Force the heart has to overcome

Mechanisms to Increase SV max: What is contractility?

Force of contraction

What are the mechanisms that increase SV max? (3)

Increased preload (EDV) | Decreased afterload (TPR) | Increased contractility

What are the changes in muscle structure that are responsible for the increase in the maximal a-vO2 difference with endurance training? (3)

Increased muscle blood flow | Increased capillary density | Increased mitochondrial number

What are the changes in blood components that are responsible for the increase in the maximal a-vO2 difference with endurance training? (4)

Increased total blood volume | Increased plasma volume | Increased red cell mass | Decreased consequence on blood viscosity

What are the underlying causes for the decrease in VO2 max that occurs with cessation of endurance training? (2)

Decreased SV max | Decreased maximal a-vO2 difference

About ____% of the increase in mitochondrial content was lost after 1 week of detraining | All of the adaptations were lost after ____ weeks | It took ____ weeks of retraining to regain the adaptations lost in the first week of detraining

50% | 5 weeks | 4 weeks

What is the maker of mitochondrial oxidative capacity?

Citrate synthase (CS)

What types of fibers have the same response at any intensity and duration for mitochondrial enzymes?

Type IIA (red gastrocnemius)

What type of muscle fiber increases mitochondrial enzymes with increased intensity and duration?

Type IIb (white gastrocnemius)

Light to moderate exercise training = increased CS in ____ oxidative fibers while strenuous exercise training = increased CS in ____ oxidative fibers.

High | Low

What stimulates mitochondrial ATP production?

[ADP]

Are less [ADP] needed to increase ATP production and VO2 (oxygen uptake)? (Meaning you can make some ATP with less [ADP])

Yes

After endurance training oxygen uptake kinetics are ____, while the O2 deficit is ____.

Faster | Lower

In regards to biochemical adaptations and FFA oxidation; | ____ mitochondrial number and capillary density | ____ enzymes of b-oxidation | ____ FFA oxidation

Increased mitochondrial number and capillary density | Increased enzymes of b-oxidation | Increased FFA oxidation

In regards to the endurance training crossover concept, what happens and what is the net result? (4)

Increased FFA oxidation | Spares muscle glycogen | Spares blood glucose | Net result: shifts crossover curve to the right

What is blood lactate a balance between?

Lactate production/appearance in blood and removal/disappearance from blood (Ra ->blood lactate -> Rd)

Endurance training shifts the lactate threshold to the ____.

Right

What does strength training result in? (2)

Increase muscle size and strength | Increased ability to activate motor units

Why is there a great initial gain in the first 4-6 weeks of strength training?

Motor units are more active

What is muscular enlargement due to?

Hypertrophy | Long term strength training

What are factors that can affect maximal performance? (6)

Energy Production (Anaerobic Sources) | Energy Production (Aerobic Sources) | Diet | CNS Function | Strength/Skill | Environment

What are the sites of fatigue? (2)

Central fatigue | Peripheral fatigue

How can the central nervous system arousal alter the state of fatigue? (1)

By facilitating motor unit recruitment

Repeated stimulation of the sarcolemma can do what? (2)

Reduce size and frequency of action potentials

A block of the action potential in the T-tubules will cause a reduction in ____ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Calcium

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