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This mass-wasting process is especially associated with the permanently frozen ground found underlying much of Alaska and Canada.
a) Debris flow
b) Slump
c) Rockslide
d) solifluction

solifluction

. When __________ occurs, a crescent-shaped scarp (cliff) is created at its head.
a) Rockfall
b) Slump
c) Debris flow
d) creep

slump

Which one of these factors played a significant role in the massive rockslide along Wyoming's Gros Ventre River in 1925?
a) Water from heavy rains and snowmelt
b) Fires that removed stabilizing vegetation
c) Oversteepened slopes caused by highway construction
d) An earthquake

Water from heavy rains and snowmelt

The steepest angle that a pile of dry unconsolidated particles can sustain before moving downslope is its angle of __________.
a) Repose
b) Talus
c) Stability
d) retention

repose

. The massive landslide in the canyon of Montana's Madison River was triggered by __________.
a) Water from heavy rains and snowmelt
b) Fires that removed stabilizing vegetation
c) Oversteepened slopes caused by highway construction
d) An earthquake

earthquake

This term is used to describe material that slides downslope as a unit along a curved surface.
a) Debris flow
b) Slump
c) Lahar
d) solifluction

slump

A debris flow composed mostly of volcanic materials is called a (an) __________.
a) Earthflow
b) Solifluction lobe
c) Lahar
d) slump

lahar

Saturating the pore spaces of weathered debris with water will usually decrease the likelihood of downslope movement. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

In the evolution of many landforms mass-wasting is the step that precedes weathering. (TRUE or FALSE

false

This mass-wasting process is most frequently associated with hillsides in humid regions during times of heavy rains or snowmelt.
a) Earthflow
b) Rockslide
c) Solifluction
d) unloading

earthflow

. Slump describes the very slow, downhill movement of soil. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

When and where is solifluction common?
a) Rainy season in the tropics
b) Dry season in subtropical deserts like the Sahara
c) Summer monsoon season in India
d) Summer in northern Alaska

summer in northern Alaska

Plants tend to anchor slopes and contribute to slope stability. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

The largest river in North America in terms of discharge is the __________ River.
a) Columbia
b) Colorado
c) Mississippi
d) Yukon

Mississippi

As stream discharge increases __________.
a) Stream velocity, channel width, and channel depth all increase
b) Stream velocity increases but channel width and depth decrease
c) Stream velocity, channel width, and channel depth all decrease
d) Channel depth increases but channel width and stream velocity decrease

stream velocity, channel width and channel depth all increase

The process by which water in the gas form (water vapor) changes to liquid water is referred to as __________.
a) Evaporation
b) Deposition
c) Condensation
d) sublimation

condensation

We know that the oceans contain most of Earth's water. Which one of the following ranks second?
a) Groundwater
b) Lakes
c) Glaciers
d) atmosphere

glaciers

Channel width X channel depth X velocity is the formula used to determine a stream's __________.
a) Discharge
b) Gradient
c) Longitudinal profile
d) sheetflow

discharge

Which one of the following is NOT a type of drainage pattern?
a) Radial
b) Rectangular
c) Triangular
d) dendritic

triangular

. The vertical drop of a stream channel over a certain distance defines __________.
a) Discharge
b) Laminar flow
c) Runoff
d) gradient

gradient

Which one of the following is NOT one of the four basic drainage patterns?
a) Conate
b) Trellis
c) Rectangular
d) dendritic

conate

If you were to examine the longitudinal profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is __________.
a) Steepest near the mouth
b) Steepest near the head
c) About the same at both the head and the mouth

steepest near the head

. Stream velocity usually decreases toward the mouth of a river. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

Over land, precipitation equals runoff. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

More water evaporates from the oceans than is returned to the oceans by precipitation. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

The single most important agent sculpting Earth's surface is __________ erosion.
a) Wind
b) Ice
c) Ocean current
d) stream

stream

. The continuous movement of water from the oceans to the atmosphere, from the atmosphere to the land, and from the land back to the sea is known as __________.
a) Evapotranspiration
b) Kreb's cycle
c) Hydrologic cycle
d) Atmospheric cycle

hydrologic cycle

Which two processes release water vapor directly to the atmosphere?
a) Runoff and infiltration
b) Precipitation and sublimation
c) Evaporation and transpiration
d) Discharge and condensation

evaporation and transpiration

. Sea level drops when water is stored in expanding glaciers. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

Which one of the following factors does NOT favor increased infiltration?
a) Porous and sandy soil
b) Gentle rainfall
c) Saturated ground
d) Gentle slope

saturated ground

. A river originates 200 meters above sea level and travels 400 kilometers to the ocean. What is the average gradient in meters per kilometer?
a) 0.5 m/km
b) 2 m/km
c) 5 m/km
d) 0.2 m/km

.5 m/km

. The amount of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time is termed the infiltration capacity. (TRUE or FALSE)

false (discharge)

. Which one of the following rivers has the greatest average discharge?
a) Ganges
b) Congo
c) Nile
d) Mississippi
e) Amazon

Amazon

Which of the following represents the greatest volume of water?
a) Lakes
b) Rivers
c) Groundwater
d) atmosphere

groundwater

Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the zone of aeration?
a) Zone of soil moisture
b) Capillary fringe
c) Zone of ablation
d) Intermediate belt

zone of ablation

. A measure of a material's ability to transmit groundwater through interconnected pore spaces is known as its __________.
a) Permeability
b) Transmission coefficient
c) Porosity
d) Artesian flow

permeability

. In the United States, more groundwater is used for this purpose than for any other.
a) Drinking
b) Industry
c) Flushing toilets
d) irrigation

irrigation

The shape of the water table is a subdued replica of the surface topography. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

About what percentage of Earth's water is groundwater?
a) 0.6%
b) 6.0%
c) 16%
d) 60%

.6

At any one location, the height of the water table generally does not fluctuate. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

The natural flow of groundwater that exists when the water table intersects the ground surface is called a(n) __________.
a) Well
b) Acquitard
c) Sinkhole
d) spring

spring

This term is used to describe an impermeable layer that hinders or prevents the movement of groundwater.
a) Artesian
b) Aquitard
c) Aquifer
d) speleothem

aquitard

. This term refers to rock strata or sediments that readily transmit groundwater.

aquifer

The term __________ applies to any situation in which groundwater under pressure rises on its own above the level of the aquifer.
a) Aeration
b) Aquitard
c) Artesian
d) perched

artesian

A hole dug into the zone of saturation is called a __________.
a) Cone of depression
b) Well
c) Spring
d) aquifer

well

. This is a measure of the amount of groundwater that can be stored by rock or sediment.
a) Capillary capacity
b) Soil moisture index
c) Porosity
d) Hydraulic gradient

porosity

As ice sheets get larger, sea level __________.
a) Rises
b) Drops
c) Remains unchanged
d) Fluctuates widely

drops

During the last major advance of the Ice Age about 18,000 years ago, sea level was about __________ meters __________ than at present.
a) 50; higher
b) 200; higher
c) 100; lower
d) 300; lower

100 lower

As a glacier moves down a valley, the ice in the center moves __________ than the ice along the sides.
a) Faster
b) Slower
c) About the same rate as

faster

Where was the Atlantic shoreline of North America 18,000 years ago when ice sheets of the most recent glacial episode were at a maximum?
a) To the east of the present shoreline
b) To the west of the present shoreline
c) Very near its present location

to the east of the present shoreline

Alpine glaciers typically widen and deepen valleys, creating a U-shaped glacial __________.
a) Horn
b) Arête
c) Trough
d) moraine

trough

A single glacier may produce many end moraines. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

The broad deposit of stratified drift that is deposited beyond the end moraine of an ice sheet is a (an) __________.
a) Drumlin
b) Outwash plain
c) Kame
d) esker

outwash plain

. During the Ice Age, ice sheets covered about __________ times more land area than present day ice sheets.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5

3

. An end moraine forms when __________.
a) Accumulation exceeds wastage
b) Wastage exceeds accumulation
c) Accumulation exceeds wastage

wasting equals accumulation

Chesapeake and Delaware Bays are prominent examples of estuaries. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

The outer limit of a glacier's zone of accumulation is defined by the __________.
a) End moraine
b) Terminus
c) Snowline
d) tarn

snowline

The ridge of till (unsorted glacial sediment) that is deposited along the terminus of a glacier when the ice front is stationary is called a (an) __________.
a) Kettle
b) Esker
c) End moraine
d) Outwash plain

end moraine

The largest ice sheet on Earth today covers __________.
a) Greenland
b) Iceland
c) North Pole
d) Antarctica

greenland

Estuaries form when sea level __________.
a) Rises
b) Drops
c) Remains unchanged
d) Fluctuates widely

rises

Currently glaciers cover about __________ percent of Earth's land area.
a) 1
b) 5
c) 7
d) 10

10

Studies have shown that the margins of some North American ice sheets advanced at rates of about 50-320 meters per __________.
a) Day
b) Week
c) Month
d) year

Year

Fractures in the uppermost part of a glacier are called __________.
a) Crevasses
b) Eskers
c) Fissures
d) Ice faults

crevasses

As the front of a glacier is retreating, a layer of unsorted glacial sediment (till) known as a (an) __________ is deposited.
a) Ground moraine
b) Outwash plain
c) Zone of accumulation
d) Deflation veneer

ground moraine

When ice accumulation exceeds ice wastage, the front of a glacier will __________.

a) Advance
b) Remain stationary
c) Retreat
d) disappear

advance

Maine's Acadia National Park and vicinity is an excellent example of ______________.
a) A portion of New England that was not glaciated during the Ice Age
b) A region eroded by alpine glaciers
c) An area flooded by the post-Ice Age rise in sea level

an area flooded by the post Ice Age rise in sea level

Which one of the following regions has NOT been modified by glacial erosion and /or deposition ?
a) Yosemite Valley, CA
b) Great Lakes
c) Stone Mountain, GA
d) Cape Cod, MA

stone mountain, ca

Desert streams are usually dry and carry water only after periods of rain. Such streams are said to be __________.
a) Peripheral
b) Ephemeral
c) Anticlinal
d) dendritic

ephemeral

Approximately __________ percent of the world's land area is characterized by dry climates.
a) 10
b) 20
c) 30
d) 40

30

. Which one of the following statements about deserts is accurate?
a) Infrequent desert rains are often heavy
b) They consist of mile after mile of sand dunes
c) Wind is the most important erosional agent
d) Deserts are lifeless or almost lifeless

infrequent desert rains are often heavy

Steppe climates can also be described as __________.
a) Ultra-dry
b) Glacial
c) Humid
d) semiarid

semiarid

Many middle latitude deserts may also be characterized as __________ deserts.
a) Orographic
b) Ephemeral
c) Rainshadow
d) parabolic

rainshadow

Climatologists define dry climates as those in which annual precipitation is exceeded by potential annual __________.
a) Runoff
b) Infiltration
c) evaporation

evaporation

Which one of the following is NOT a rainshadow desert?
a) Arabian Desert
b) Great Basin Desert
c) Patagonian Desert
d) Gobi Desert

Arabian Desert

Usually sand dunes cover 50 percent or more of desert surfaces. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

Which letter on the map represents the Atacama Desert?

South America west coast

Rainshadow deserts occur on the __________ sides of mountains.
a) Leeward
b) Steepest
c) South
d) windward

leeward

Which term is used to describe a desert climate?
a) Arid
b) Littoral
c) Taiga
d) steppe

arid

The lifting and removal of loose material by wind is known as __________.
a) Deflation
b) Inflation
c) Refraction
d) ablation

deflation

A surface of tightly packed coarse pebbles on the desert surface is called __________.
a) Desert pavement
b) Pedalfer
c) Desert varnish
d) blowout

desert pavement

A __________ is a depression excavated by wind in easily eroded materials.
a) Sinkhole
b) Kettle hole
c) Barchans
d) blowout

blowout

Desert pavement __________.

a) Represents a layer of stream-deposited pebbles
b) Is created when wind carries away finer particles, leaving coarse particles behind
c) Is formed when strong winds roll coarse pebbles into an area

is created when wind carries away finer particles, leaving coarse particles behind

Longshore currents move opposite the direction of beach drift. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

. The collapse of a sea arch often produces a sea stack. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

A ridge of sand that extends into the mouth of an adjacent bay is a __________.
a) Tombolo
b) Spit
c) Sea arch
d) groin

spit

A __________ is an isolated mass of rock standing just offshore produced by wave erosion of a headland.
a) Seamount
b) Seawall
c) Sea arch
d) Sea stack

sea stack

Longshore currents are responsible for producing all of the following features EXCEPT a __________.
a) Spit
b) Baymouth bar
c) Tombolo
d) groin

groin

Which one of the following is NOT a factor that influences the characteristics of a wave?

fetch, wind speed, length of time wind has blown, wave length and crest all effect

Over time, the beach behind a breakwater tends to __________.
a) Widen as more sand accumulates
b) Get narrower because it is starved for sand
c) Show little or no change

widen as more sand accumulates

. In bays, wave __________ causes waves to diverge and weaken, resulting in the accumulation of sediments to form sandy beaches.
a) Oscillation
b) Reflection
c) Refraction
d) return

refraction

. In the open sea, the form of a wave moves forward while the water itself moves backward. (TRUE or FALSE)

false

The bending of waves is called __________.
a) Reflection
b) Diffusion
c) Refraction
d) dispersion

refraction

Expanding air is responsible for breaking rocks and enlarging fractures as a wave withdraws. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland is a __________.

tombolo

Breakwaters are wall-like structures built parallel to the shore to protect boats from the force of breaking waves. (TRUE or FALSE)

true

The grinding action of water "armed" with rock fragments is a process called __________.

abrasion

The movement of water parallel to the shore in the surf zone is called __________.
a) Baymouth current
b) Longshore current
c) Saltation
d) fetch

longshore current

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