psych chapter 1-3

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psychology's intellectual parents are the disciplines of

philosophy and physiology

wilhelm wundt beleived the focus of psychology should be

examining people's awareness of their immediate experience

melissa is participating in a study in which she is asked to carefully obsereve and report her conscious reactions to several stimuli. she is most likely participating in a study conducted by a

structuralist psychologist

stressing that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure is associated wih the school of psycholgy known as

functionalism

functionalism was founded by

William James

What had a significant influence on the development of Freud's theory?

knowledge gained as a result of working with patients, examination of his own anxieties, conflicts, and desires and his observation of the slips of the tongue people tend to make

Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on a maze learning in rats. Christine would most likely be considered a

behaviorist

You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, "Internal states undoubtedly exist, but it is not necessary to draw inferences about unobservable states in order to understand behavior." This faculty member's views are MOST similar to the views held by

B.F. Skinner

The school of psychology that takes the most positive view of human nature is

humanism

Both Rogers and Maslow believe

people have a basic need to fulfill their potential for personal growth

The recent increased interest in research dealing with "cultural" variables in psychology can be attributed to

various groups (such as civil rights groups, women's groups) arguing that society has paid little attention to human diversity, increased ethnic diversity in the United States, increased contact with non-Western cultures due to advances in communication and travel

Historically, which of the following groups of individuals has been most frequently used as subjects in psychological research

white men

What consists of the definition of psychology?

it is a profession that solves practical problems, studies behavior including physiological and cognitive process, it is a science

A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics would most likely be concerned with

developing tests

A psychologist who works on trying to increase job satisfaction and productivity in a large company would likely have received training in

industrial and organizational psychology

A lawyer who wanted to have expert witness testify at a hearing to determine whether or not his client was competent to stand trial would need to contact a psychologist whose specialty was

forensic psychology

Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired throughout

direction observation

Liam is reading a magazine article about a new "wonder drug" and finds himself wondering who participated in the study, and what evidence the claims are based on. Liam's thinking illustrates the idea that

information needs to be viewed with a certain degree of skepticism

Dr. Kline takes an eclectic approach in treating psychological disorders. She often prescribes medications that influence neurotransmitters, levels, but she also works with her clients to change their behavior and understand the impact of social factors in their problems. Dr. Klien's approach to therapy illustrates the idea that

differing theoretical perspectives can provide a more complete understanding of behavior

The scientific approach assumes that

events are governed by some lawful order

Dr. Dobbins wants to study attachment patters in single-parent families. The first step in her scientific investigation would be to

formulate a testable hypothesis

Dr. Critell is studying agression in children and plans to define aggression as the number of times on child pushes or strikes another child. Defining aggressions in this way would

represent an operational definition

Publication of research finings is extremely important to the scientific method because

it allows or critique and self-correction

The different general strategies for conducting scientific investigation are referred to as

research methods

A group of researches is investigating the effects of gingko biloba on memory. During the first part of the study the animals learn to run a maze while they are not receiving the supplement; in the second part of the researches, count how many trials it takes before the animals can run the maze pattern without making any errors. In this study, the independent variable is

the presences or absence of the food supplement in the animal's diet

A group of researches conducts a study to determine if children's performance is affected by the presence of other children. First, the children are taken to a room with no children and timed while they complete a puzzle. Later, the same children are taken to a room with four other children and timed while they complete a similar puzzle. In this study, the length of a time it takes to complete the puzzle would be

the dependent variable

Jason believes that patrons in his bar will be more likely to leave a tip if the tip jar already has some money in it, than if the tip jar is completely empty. To test this belief he has the tip jar empty about half the time when a customer approaches the bar;

the patrons who see an empty tip jar

Dr. Prutherow believes that people who are understates will develop more colds than people who are not under stress. When he randomly selects 10 participants and exposes them to high levels of stress, he finds that 9 of the participants develop colds. Based on these results he concludes that stress causes an increase in colds. Dr. Prutherow's reasoning may be flawed because in this study

there was no control group for comparison.

By definition, an extraneous variable is

a variable, other than the independent variable, that may influence the dependent variable

Dr. Kalmagura plans on introducing a new exam review procedure in chemistry classes. To check the effectiveness of the new procedure he is going to have half his students try the new technique for one semester, while the remaining students review in they have always done int he past. He asks each student to decide which of the techniques they would like to use, the new technique or the standard technique. In this example, Dr. Kalmagura's procedure illustrates

the use of non-random assignment

The ability to infer a cause and effect relationship is associated only with the

experimental research method

One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is

the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted

going to a playground for an hour each day for two weeks and recording girl-boy exchanges would be an example of

naturalistic observation

One of the main concerns with the case study method of research is that

the experiences reported may not be representative of other cases

The primary reason descriptive/correlational research cannot determine conclusively that variables have a cause and effect relationship is because in conducting the research

the researcher cannot control events or manipulate variables

based on the information on getting more out of lectures presented in the personal application section in chapter 1, absences from classes and grade average in the class would be

negatively correlated

statistically significant means that the results of an experiment most likely

were not due to chance

To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the later afternoon and evening hours, the Student Services department sends questionnaire to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be

a population

One of the major concerns associated with Internet- mediated research is

the potential for sampling bias

Dr. Dickison is investigating the link between social support networks and grades in school. Students in research his classes are required to complete survey forms related to this research. If a survey form is not completed by the end of the semester a student's grade is reduced by 10 points. In this case, some researches might argue that Dr. Dickinson's violates the ethical principle of

voluntary participation

Ian has been in a coma since he was in a serious dive accident. He is still on medical lifes support because he is unable to breathe and his heart will not beat without assistance. It is likely that the accident caused damage to Ian's

medulla

The drunken driving suspect was unable to hold his hand out tot he side and bring his finger to a stop on his nose because one of the brain structures depressed first by alcohol is the

cerebellum

Elizabeth just caught sigh of a red hummingbird. The neural impulses from her eye will eventually travel to her occipital lobe, but first they must pass through

the thalamus

Imagine that you have stumbled across a secret laboratory where an evil scientist is conducting unauthorized brain research. By altering brain structures he has created superheros that have specialized powers or abilities. One of these superheros has a fantastic memory and is able to remember new information almost instantly. In this case, one of the brain structure that the scientist most likely altered would be

the amygdala

Some theorists believe that a sort of "executive control system," which is responsible for monitoring, directing, and organizing thought processes, is houseed in the

prefrontal cortex

If the occipital lobe of the brain is stimulated, a person would be most likely to report

seeing a flash of light

Which of the following statements concerning plasticity int he brain is false?

older rains show more plasticity than younger brains

Zeke has no problem understanding what other people say to him, but he has difficulty producing spoken language. If Zeke's problem stems from damage to the cerebral cortex, the damage would most likely be

an area known as Broca's area

Imagine that a picture of a spoon is briefly flashed in the left visual field of an individual with a severed corpus callosum. At the same time, a picture of a cup is briefly flashed in the right visual field. based on Roger Sperry's work with split brian patients, you could predict that this individual will say

i saw the cup

Londra and Sondra are identical twins who have been raised together in the same home. Londra has developed a psychological disorder, by Sondra does not appear to have the same disorder. This information could be used as evidence to suggest that

environmental factors have more influence than genetic factors in this disorder.

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