FINAL EVERYTHING

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What is the overarching theme of biology?

Evolution

How many themes are there that connect the concepts of biology?

7

What connects the concepts of biology?

Themes

1st Theme that connects the concepts of biology

New Properties Emerge at Each Level in the biological Hierarchy

2nd Theme that connects the concepts of biology

Organisms interact w/ their environments

3rd Theme that connects the concepts of biology

Structure and Function are correlated at all levels of biological organization

4th Theme that connects the concepts of biology

Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function

5th theme that connects the concepts of biology

DNA is the heritable information in cells

6th theme that connects the concepts of biology?

Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems

7th theme that connects the concepts of biology?

Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life

What is the general concept of biology that all themes are connected to

Scientists use two forms of inquiry in their study of nature

Scientists use two forms of inquiry in their study of nature

-Discovery Science
-Hypothesis-based science

Theme 1: New properties emerge at each level in the biological heirarchy (4 concepts)

-Levels of organization
-Emergent Properties
-Reductionism
-Systems Biology

Theme 2: Organisms interact with their environments (2 concepts)

-Ecosystem Dynamics
-Energy conversion

What are the two forms of feedback that regulate biological systems?

Negative & Positive

What is positive feedback?

means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced

What is negative feedback?

means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows & less of the product is produced

Theme 7: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of live (3 concepts)

-Organizations of life
-Three domains of life
-Charles Darwin & the theory of natural selection

Three Domains of Life

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

What is evolution?

Process of change that has transformed life on earth

What is biology?

Scientific study of life

We recognize life by what living organisms....

DO!

T/F Evolution makes sense of everthing we know about living organisms?

True!

The study of life can be divided into different ______.

Levels of biological organization

Levels of biological organization

1 biosphere
2 ecosystemes
3 communities
4 populations
5 organisms
6 organs and organ systems
7 tissues
8 cells
9 organelles
10 molecules

What are emergent properties?

Properties that result from the arrangement and interaction of parts within a system

Reductionism

reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

An understanding of biology balances reductionism with the study of...

emergent properties

What is a system?

A combination of components that function together

What does systems biology do?

constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems

T/F Every organism interacts with its environment and other organisms, not including nonliving facts

FALSE (does include nonliving factors)

Both organisms and their environments are affected by...

the interactions between them

Both organisms and their environments are affected by the interactions between them. This is considered the exchange of..

matter & energy

Ecosystem Dynamics' 2 major processes:

1. cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil
2. The flow of energy, from sunlight to producers and consumers

Work requires..

source of energy

Energy can be stored how..

in many different forms such as light, chemical, kinetic, potential, and thermal

The energy exchange between and organism and its environment often involves...

energy transformations

Energy flows _____ an ecosystem

through

Energy usually enters as... and leaves as...

enters as light, leaves as heat

T/F Structure and function of living organisms are closely related

True
(example: a leaf is thin & flat, maximizing the capture of light by chloroplasts)

What is the basic unit of life?

Cells

The ____ is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life.

cell

All cells....

-Are enclosed by a membrane
-Use DNA as their genetic info

Two groups of cells..

Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

cells that have a nucleus

Prokaryotic

cells that do not have a nucleus

What is the heritable information in cells?

DNA

What do chromosomes contain?

cell's genetic material in the form of DNA

Chromosomes contain cell's genetic material in the form of what?

DNA

What are genes?

units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring

Genes are composed of..

DNA

What is taxonomy

Branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups of increasing size

What the broadest units of classification?

Domains followed by Kingdoms

What domain(s) comprise all prokaryotes?

Domain Bacteria & Domain Archaea

What domain(s) include all eukaryotes?

Domain Eukarya

Charles Darwin is known for what theory?

Theory of Natural Selection

What did Darwin observe?

-Individuals in population have traits that vary
-Many of these traits are heritable (passed on)
-More offspring are produced than survive
-Competition is inevitable
-Species generally suit their environment

Darwin inferred from his observations that:

-Individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive & reproduce
-Over time, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits

Natural environments _____ for beneficial traits.

Select

Evolutionary relationships are often illustrated with what kind of diagrams that show ancestors and their descendants?

tree-like diagrams

What is discovery science?

describes natural structures and processes

Discovery science is based on two things

-observation
-analysis of data

What is data?

recorded observations or items of information

Two types of data

Qualitative
Quantitative

What's the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?

qualitative - descriptions rather than measurements
quantitative - recorded measurements

Scientists use what to arrive at conclusions?

Inductive reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances (Sun always rises in the east, objects fall to the ground).

Hypotheses are..

Hypothetical explanations which are proposed from observations that lead us to ask questions

What is a hypothesis?

tentative answer to a well-framed question

Every hypothesis must be...

testable & falsifiable

Falsifiable

capable of being tested (verified or falsified) by experiment or observation; capable of being disproved

Deductive Reasoning does what?

uses general premises to make specific predictions (if organisms are made of cells, and humans are organisms, then humans are composed of cells)

Scientific Method

1. Observations/Define problem
2. Collect information
3. Form Hypothesis
4. Test hypothesis/Experiment
5. Make conclusions based on testing
6. Report results

What is a controlled experiment?

One that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group

Controlled experiments are ones that are designed to compare an experimental group with a....

control group

What is the independent variable of an experiment?

The cause (cause/effect)

What is the dependent variable of an experiment?

The effect (cause/effect)

T/F Scientific Theories are broader in scope than a hypothesis

True!

Scientific Theories are characterized by these 3 characteristics..

-Broader in scope than a hypothesis
-Very general
-Supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis

what is matter?

anything that takes up space & has mass

3 forms of Matter that build off of eachother

1. Elements
2. Atoms (smallest unit of element)
3. Isotopes (two atoms of an element have different number of neutrons)

What are elements?

Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

4 most important elements?

1. Oxygen
2. Carbon
3. Nitrogen
4. Hydrogen

Trace Elements

Elements required by an organism in only extremely small quantities

What are atoms?

Smallest unit of an element

Subatomic particles of an atom

-Protons (positive charge)
-Neutrons (neutral)
-Electrons (negative charge)

Atomic nucleus consists of..

protons & neutrons

Are protons and neutrons almost identical in mass?

yes

What is a Dalton?

Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)

Electrons weigh _____ than protons & neutrons

ALOT LESS

Orbitals/Shells/Clouds...

area where electrons are found

What determines chemical behavior of an atom?

number and arrangement of electrons

Valence

the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom

What makes an atom neutral?

# protons = # electrons

Atomic number indicates...

number of protons

Atomic Mass (Mass number) indicates...

sum of protons and neutrons

Isotopes are...

two atoms of the same element that differ in number of neutrons

what are radioactive isotopes

the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy

Two or more atoms combine chemically to form...

molecules or compounds

Molecules are...

two or more atoms of the same element

Compounds are..

two or more atoms bonded but by different elements

T/F a compound has characteristics similar to those of its element's

FALSE!!

Chemical formulas describe...

chemical composition of a compound

Chemical equation...

describes chemical reaction between atoms and compounds

4 Kinds of Chemical Bonds:

-Covalent Bonds
-Ionic Bonds
-Hydrogen Bonds
-Van der Waals Interactions

What are covalent bonds?

-Sharing of electrons
-Strongest chemical bonds in nature

What is the strongest chemical bond in nature?

COVALENT BONDS

Covalent bonds can be one of these two things?

polar/nonpolar

Polar molecules:

-unequal sharing of electrons
-give/take of electrons rather than share

Electronegativity

The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound

Nonpolar molecules:

-electrons are equally shared

Ionic bonds are when..

one atom donates electrons to another

When an atom becomes charged, it forms an..

ion

Cations are..

positively charged ions

ion

a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)

Anions are...

negatively charged ions

T/F ionic compounds or salts easily dissociate in water

True

Hydrogen bonds form when...

a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom

Are hydrogen bonds strong or weak?

VERY WEAK!!

Hydrogen bonds are very important in...

biological systems

Van der Waals Interactions

weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together

Are Van der Waals interactions weak or strong bonds?

Very weak chemical bonds

Van der Waals interactions occur ONLY when...

atoms and non-polar molecules are very close together, due to regions of slightly opposite charge

Emergent properties

new properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

Molecules are drawn flat... are they flat realistically?

No, 3-dimensional

Molecules 3D shape determines...

biological function

Hormones have certain shapes that they are...

recognized by specific cells in your body

Do antibodies and antigens keep us healthy or make us sick?

Keep us healthy

Enzymes can only work in what form?

3D form

Lock and Key Theory (explain)

Deals with enzymes; there's always a unique way that something must fit, and it doesn't fit, it will not work

Antibodies are what kind of macromolecule?

they are proteins

What does an antibody do?

Recognizes things you've been exposed to and immediately deactivates it.

In chemical reactions, do all atoms of the reactants have to be accounted for?

Yes, balanced equations

Reversible reactions are what..

have to do with chemical reactions; proceed both ways
(3H2 + N2 <=> 2NH3)

Chemical equilibrium is what?

The point at which reactions offset one another

When talking about the chemical equilibrium, the _______ remains the same, but the _____ goes forward and backward.

concentration remains the same; reaction goes forward and backward

All life forms require water. T/F

True!

All cells are surrounded by what chemical compound?

Water (h2o)

Cells are mostly composed of...

water

A liquid at body temperature is good for two reasons

it can flow freely & it is excellent for transportation of solutes

Water is nonpolar or polar?

POLAR!!

Water forms what kinds of bonds with eachother?

Hydrogen bonds

Hydrogen bonds are very weak bonds unless...

alot of hydrogen is used

Emergent properties of water:

1. Cohesive behavior
2. Ability to moderate temperature (never a rapid increase or decrease in temperature)
3. Expansion when frozen
4. Versatile solvent

Cohesion is when..

molecules are attracted to molecules

Cohesion is very important for...

plants

During cohesion, water molecules stick together due to what kind of bonds?

Hydrogen bonds

Cohesion helps transport water in which way in plants?

upward

Adhesion is what?

Molecules are attracted to the walls of the cell

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