(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
(1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Leonardo Da Vinci
(1452-1519) Artist who made sculptures and religious paintings like the Last Supper.
Lorenzo de Medici
r(1469-1492) The Medici's were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Miguel De Cervantes
(1547-1616) Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
Hans Holbein the Younger
German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
r(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter's Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. Sponsored Michaelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries. The people loved the idea of being the monarch and removed all competition. They were very Machiavellian. Included Henry VII and Henry VIII of England.
Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici's. Failed, and Medici retribution was swift and very violent.
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
French satirical author.Gargantua and Pantagruel.
A man that is multitalented and is well educated. The example being Michaelangelo.
Revival of antiquity
The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman's.
Friar Girolamo Savonarola
(1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Everyday language of a specific nation.
The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church.
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
The selling of church offices.
The practice of lending money for interest.
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church. Theocracy - A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
War of the Three Henrys
French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
Claimed Brazil for Portugal n 1500. He had intended to follow Da Gama but was blown off course.
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.
(1487-1488) Portuguese, first European to reach the southern tip of Africa in 1488.
Sir Francis Drake
English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships; 'singed the king beard'; involved in the armada. The second person to circumnavigate the globe.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isablella of Casille were the monarchs who united Spain in 1469 when they married. Responsible for the success of the reconquista in 1492.
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
Vasco da Gama
Sailed from Portugal and landed in India in 1498.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1552?-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Giovanni de Verrazano
(1485?-1528?) Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America.