Public Relations Principles - Final Exam

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Once self interest is involved, opinion is ...

... not easily changed.

What characteristic is common among opinion leaders?

Opinion leaders are highly interested in the subject matter.

An elected official is an example of a ...

... formal opinion leader.

(True/False) The real power of the mass media is their ability t tell Americans what to think.

False

Agenda Setting Theory

Theory that predicts that the amount of attention given to an issue in the media affects the level of importance assigned to it by the public.

Media effects increase when ...

... people can't verify information through personal experience or knowledge.

What is the most difficult persuasive task to accomplish?

Changing or neutralizing hostile opinion.

What are characteristics in factors in source credibility?

Expertise, sincerity, similarity to the audience, and appearance are all factors.

Psychographics

involves studies of consumers based on social and psychological characteristics including lifestyles, attitudes, and beliefs.

(True/False) Public opinion is the expression of views of the majrity of the population.

False

Propaganda

The deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions (thoughts) and direct behavior.

Card Stacking

The selection of facts and data to build an overwhelming case on one side of an issue, while concealing the other side.

"Glittering Generalities" refers to ...

... favorable abstractions such as freedom or justice.

(True/False) The "card stacking" technique associated with propaganda refers to the implication of direct statement that "everyone wants the product" or the idea has "overwhelming support."

False

Logic appeals (facts and figures) are more effective than emotional appeals with ...

... highly educated, sophisticated publics.

What factors affect persuasive communication?

Source credibility, clarity of message, appeal to self interest, timing, and context.

The public needing different information and turning to different media at different times is part of ...

... the adoption/diffusion process.

What are the steps in the adoption/diffusion process?

1. Awareness
2. Interest
3. Evaluation
4. Trial
5. Adoption
6. Reinforcement

Our understanding of public opinion tells us ...

1. Only those with an interest in the subject will have an opinion.
2. The public tends to be passive on any given issue.
3. Opinion doesn't stay aroused unless a strong self-interest is involved or events sustain the heightened public opinion.

(True/False) It is considered unethical to persuade others to believe/adopt something you wouldn't.

True

(True/False) The public responds to a positive persuasion appeal better than to a negative appeal.

True

(True/False) Fear is a highly effective persuasive effect.

False

Marketing executives rank public relations higher than marketing in:

Launching new products, building awareness and word of mouth, and managing brand and corporate reputations.

Of the following terms (management function, mutual lines of communication/feedback, publics, and profitability) which is not generally associated within the accepted definitions of public relations?

Profitability

What is the first element of the Public Relations process?

Research

Of he following skills (writing, networking, research, and planning) which is not essential for a PR practitioner?

Networking

What a common understanding of the relationship between PR and marketing?

Advertising is usually more costly.

Which best describes the relationship between PR and marketing?

Marketing generally speaks of customers and consumers, wile PR focuses on publics, audiences and stakeholders.

Which of the following is NOT a hallmark of the PR professional?
1. A sense of independence
2. A sense of responsibility for society
3. A concern for integrity of the profession
4. Highest loyalty to the employer of the moment

Highest loyalty to the employer of the moment

"we chose this plan because it would benefit the majority of you, and harm the fewest" would be an example of using this perspective:

Situationalist

Front groups are most likely to be funded by:

Special/corporate interest groups

What are the six core values in the PRSA Code of Ethics?

Advocacy, honesty, fairness, independence,

Critics often complain that PR codes of ethics ...

... have no "teeth."

Eldelman Worldwide was criticized for ...

... misleading the public.

Most professional membership organizations believe that the primary purpose of establishing codes of ethics is:

Education and information

(True/False) Society expects PR practitioners to take on a role as an advocate while journalists are expected to be objective.

True

(True/False) Independence is a core value stipulated by the PRSA.

True

(True/False) The licensing of PR professionals is likely to be initiated in the near future.

False

(True/False) To become accredited by the PRSA with the designation of "APR" one must have demonstrated some significant achienvements.

False

(True/False) Celebrities appearing on talk shows should disclose what company or organization is paying them to appear.

True

The story of the Cabbage Patch Kids dolls ilustrates ...

... the ability of PR to support marketing.

(True/False) Fewer than 3 in 10 Americans trust U.S. corporations.

True

Which is not a function of government relations specialists?
1. Disseminate management's views
2. Cooperate with government of projects of mutual interest
3. Motivate employees to participate in the political process
4. organize front groups

4. Organize front groups

The cultural dimension that measures how well a society tolerates ambiguity is?

Uncertainty Avoidance

The refusal to buy products or services of an "offending" company is a?

Boycott

Advocacy ads are most common in?

Grassroots lobbying

The effort of American government to be the major disseminator of information around the world is called:

Public diplomacy

The public increasingly viewed as most important for corporations and nonprofits alike is:

Employees

What is not among the nation's most influential (top five) lobbying groups?
1. American Israel Public Affairs Committee
2. American Association of Retired Persons
3. Partnership for a Drug Free America
4. National Rifle Association

3. Partnership for a Drug Free America

Which is not a basic objective for U.S. firms working for foreign governments?
1. Encourage trade
2. Generate tourism
3. Change attitudes and behaviors of dissident factions
4. Influence U.S. foreign policy

3. Change attitudes and behaviors of dissident factions

Which is not a key social issue in the workplace?
1. Health insurance
2. Employee loyalty
3. Networking
3r. Sexual harassment

3. Networking

Former legislators and officials who capitalize on their connections and charge large counseling fees are known as:

Influence peddlers

International public relations growth has primarily been influence by:

Social change

Dannon yogurts support of the National Wildlife Federation (15% of all products) is a form of:

Cause-related marketing

The use of front groups is often referred to as:

Stealth lobbying

With regard to issues such as labor, health and the environment, nongovernmental organizations are perceived by the public as:

more credible than the media

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