Not Anabaptist himself, but his followers became Anabaptist. Agrees w/ Luther on fundamental issues, opposed images, isn't radical enough for some of his followers
Not baptist, re-baptized as adults, small group from Switzerland. Got killed for their baptisms & beliefs. Small pure church. Ban ppl from it b/c of their sin for their own good until they change. Agrees w/ 2 kingdoms but deny that Christians should serve in the world.
Anabaptist from Switzerland. Lead a meeting to form Schleitheim Confession in 1527
A declaration of Swiss Anabaptist Beliefs.
French Catholic, Calvinism. Use things on earth (God's gifts) in moderation & don't loose focus on God. Wrote the Institutes. Divine Calling
The Institutes (of the Christian Religion)
A doctrine of salvation and predestination and election Written by John Calvin.
Limited Atonement (to the elect)
Perseverance of the Saints
Predestination & Election
God predestines people's salvation and elects them beforehand.
Anglican, needs an heir. Marries Ann Boylin and gets annulment against the pope, gets excommunicated.
Act of Supremacy
Created the Church of England. Made Henry (King) supreme head of Church. Denial of King's supremacy was treason.
Returns England to Protestantism, wants unity and peace.
Book of Common Prayer
Anglican, Deemphisizes differences like communion. Creates unity.
Presbyterian Church Government
There is authority on top b/c of bottom. They practice 2 sacraments - Infant baptism & communion, but salvation does not come from these.
Denied Henry VIII's divorce.
Serious about beliefs, strict, Calvinist, believed in predestination and that Elizabeth's Unity was too lukewarm. They left and came to U.S. to practice true Christianity.
Council of Trent
Church comes together to talk about scripture & salvation. We are saved through cooperation between God & individual. 7 sacraments help u get grace. Belief in hierarchy, scripture alone interpreted by the church.
Founded by Ignatius Loyola, Believed in education and ministry.
Christian, Founder of Jesuits, believed to obey church as supreme authority. Praised good works. Education & ministry.
Peace of Westphalia
Ended 30 years war in 1648
Wars of Religion
30 years war (1618 - 1648)
Student of Loyola. Ministered all over the country but mainly in India.
Philipp Spener - What is important is that the holy spirit is making you a new person, not getting worked up in little details.
Declining church authority, more knowledge & mathematics.
1564-1642 Christian, Understanding science in light of faith. Bible does not explain scientific facts.
First to use telescope to study sky, discovers moon has craters, Jupiter has moons, Writes the Starry Messenger in 1610, saw no conflict w/ scripture. Church does. He recants in 1633.
Christian, Poland, believed in heliocentric (Sun centered) universe b/c is was simple.
1642 - 1727 Christian
What makes the planets move? The Principa 1687 - universal law of gravitation.
World governed by Laws of Nature - principles discoverable by reason which control nature.
1623-1662 Christian. French scientist & mathematician. Reason is good but it has limits. There needs to be a balance. There are 3 ways of believing: reason, tradition, and inspiration. (Uses #s of things).
18th century 1687 - 1789. Change of focus from God to man. Intellectual movement that attempts to explain all of reality in terms of science & reason. Progress & understanding, reasoning to discover truth (instead of authority)
Change Christianity while defining it, unite religion.
Laws of Nature
1588 - 1679 Social Contract
State of nature = state of war. All humans seek peace and defend ourselves. Life is better w/ a social contract & centralized order & authority.
ppl are basically good at birth born as a blank slate. We have rights to life, liberty and PROPERTY. Belief in state of nature, social contract, and a government to protect our rights that we can choose & revoke.
1712 - 1778
Wrote the social contract (1772) - we submit ourselves to general will, what is best for all is best for the individual.
The Wealth of Nations 1776
State doesn't interfere w/ ppl. Trade and division of labor is more productive, self interest is positive and a virtue.
Deist, Wrote the Declaration Of Independence in 1776
1789 Peasants take power & overturn leaders. Peasants DeChristianized things. Declaration of the rights of man & citizen (Social Contract) in 1789 (French Constitution).
1759 - 1797 Social Contract, Rights of Women
Social Contract Theory
General will, what is best for all is best for the individual. Protects our rights.
Slave's tough journey across the Atlantic. Many died.
Glory, Gold, and God
Spanish Empire, Searched for these things and converts their slaves to Christianity.
Rising young politician, 1785 has a conversion experience, 1787 dedicates his life to ending slavery
Atheist. Theology is hazardous, preserved by custom which never reasons. We should only be good b/c we benefit from it. Can't gain happiness through Christ.
Deist, Reasoning, religion has brought wars & death & violence & destruction. (Still believes in God though). Plea for religious tolerance.
Diest, wants morale perfection, virtuous, tries to be good and make progress.