a limited period of time for someone to be in office
period of time during which, each year, Congress assembles and conducts business
Speaker of the house
the leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives
President of the senate
the presiding officer of a senate; in Congress, the Vice President of the United States; in a State's legislature, either the lieutenant governor or a senator
Permanently established legislative commitees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area.
under the chairperson's leadership, the committee can ignore the bill and simply let it die
committees on which both senators and representatives serve
Committees created by Congress to conduct special investigations.
committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form.
a type of government in which the poeple themselves meet and make laws that they decide are needed
35 years of age, natural born citizen, reside in us for 14 years
decides when to meet, what bills to discuss, and how long to discuss them for; elected by secret ballot
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
It proved that the government was weak and ineffective under the articles of confederation
those who favor a stronger National government
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
a written or published statement, picture, etc., tending to damange a person's reputation
a plan of government that judges laws and decides legal cases
a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose)
A change to the Constitution
to approve; confirm in a frmal way, as by a vote
the right or power of a president to reject bills passed by congress
the power of courts to declare acts of the legislative or executive branches unconstitutional
the right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
The American Civil Liberties Union. It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion
being tried twice for the same crime
the right of government to take private property for public use
the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
rebirth , a period of European history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning and views of the world
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
.of or characteristic of a form or system felt to be of first significance before modern times
This man was the leader of Florence after the Medici were overthrown in 1494, as well as a Christian preacher and reformer. He was up against tyrants and corrupt clergy, specifically the Duke of Milan and Pope Alexander VI. He was eventually martyred for his ideas.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
concerning those not members of the clergy
pardon sold by catholic church to reduce one's punishment
a region around Rome that was captured from the Lombards by Pepin the Short and given to the pope
written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences
council of trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
a person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church
Ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus
King of England and Ireland from 1547 to 1553
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603
German theologian who led the Reformation
Justification by Faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Dias was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Papal line of Demarcation
line drawn by the Pope dividing the land in the New World into 2 parts, with Portugal being granted the East and Spain being granted the West
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
a former village on the James River in Virginia north of Norfolk
a town in Massachusetts founded by Pilgrims in 1620, colony that celebrated the first Thanksgiving
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620