AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH
3 INCHES AND 4 ½ POUNDS
90% OF ADULT SIZE BY AGE SIX
CAN SPEAK IN [... ]WORD SENTENCES
6 to 8
Obesity is a more frequent problem than [...]
1/? suffer from obesity
Overweight and obesity rates have [...] since 1980
[...] times as many overweight children
[...] times as many overweight teenagers
[...]% of Americans are either overweight or obese
Children in [...] families are especially vulnerable to obesity
Body Mass Index
numerical value that represents height in relation to weight
How to determine BMI
1.weight in pounds X 703
2.Height squared in inches
3.Divide Step one by step two
Estimates are that [...] of Americans under the age of 18 are obese
25% to 35%
One out of every three children born in the year 2000 will develop [...] in their lifetime.
diabetes (type 2)
[...] increase in children with diabetes since 1980
If diabetes starts before age [...] an individual looses 17-24 years of life expectancy
If diabetes starts before age 15 an individual looses [..] years of life expectancy
Children born after the year 2000 are projected to be the first generation of children to have [...]
shorter life expectancies than their parents
Half of all obese children ALREADY have scarring of the [...]
Weight gain =
↑ the number of fat cells
Weight loss =
still have those number of fat cells (more hungry fat cells)
"just right" phenomenon
Things have to be exact & precise or else the child will not eat
Engaging in spontaneous activity can result in much more physical activity than [...]
structured sports(due to the limits of what must or mustn't be done)
Highly palatable food
we eat because it tastes so good
food portions are larger than necessary for health
Cafeteria Diet Effect
more food and more variety leads us to eat more
Children under the age of [...] cannot distinguish commercials from regular programming
Children under the age of [...] do not understand that commercials are used to sell products.
NEVER use food as a [...]
a fatty coating on the axons that speeds signals between neurons.
Thick band of axons; where communication takes place
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually enables children to to [...]
focus attention and curb impulsiveness
Regulate & experience emotions
Preoperational Thought (AGES 2 to 7)
The child's verbal ability permits symbolic thinking and representational insight
Focus on one idea, excluding all others
Tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective
nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be.
A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes.
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive.
Apprentice in thinking
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society
Zone of proximal development(ZPD
Vygotsky's term for the skills—cognitive as well as physical—that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently.
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.
Project Head Start
The most widespread early-childhood education program in the United States, begun in 1965 and funded by the federal government.
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
Lack of emotional regulation may be an early sign of [...]
Involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things
Involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless
Boys tend to be [...]
Girls tend to be [...]
Psychopathology is [...]
A person's evaluation of his/her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or in general.
A person's understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits (e.g. gender, size).
Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles, remember long lists of words, and control their dreams.
Self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong
People's feeling that others blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them
Pursuing a goal because of how it makes you feel (e.g the need to feel smart or competent).
Pursuing a goal for an external reward or the approval of another(e.g. by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem).
Intrinsic motivation should be fully experienced by what age?
6 years of age
People of about the same age and social status
A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby.
A child watches other children play.
Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together.
Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal.
Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns.
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them.
Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person
When does antisocial behavior decrease?
beginning at age 2
When does prosocial behavior start to increase?
from age 3 to 6
Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it.
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
POSTIVE PUNISHMENT(PUNISHMENT BY APPLICATION)
INVOLVES A RESPONSE BEING FOLLOWED BY THE PRESENTATION OF AN AVERSIVE STIMULUS
NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT (PUNISHMENT BY REMOVAL)
THE LOSS OR WITHDRAWAL OF A REINFORCING STIMULUS FOLLOWING A BEHAVIOR
Ex. Take away a kid's TV priveledge