Civil Rights- Supreme Court Cases
|Plessy v. Ferguson||1896. "Separate but equal" facilities are legal|
|Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka|| 1954. "Separate but equal" doctrine is unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy.|
A second Brown v. Board case a year later (1955) determined that desegregation should occur with "all due process and deliberate speed" in response to southern states' refusal to integrate.
|Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. United States||1964. Places of "public accommodation" like a hotel may not discriminate, per the Civil Rights Act of 1964|
|Katzenbach v. McClung||1964. The Commerce Clause giving Congress the power to regulate interstate trade makes the Civil Rights Act (1964) apply to almost all private businesses.|
|Regents of California v. Bakke||1978. Quotas for racial minority acceptance in to colleges violate the Fourteenth Amendment and constitute reverse discrimination. However, taking race in to account is constitutional.|
|Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger||2003. Generally upheld Bakke. Similar cases involving a scoring system for acceptance in to the University of Michigan. Determined that a point-based system was too similar to using quotas, but that, again, race could be one of many factors.|