Elite and popular cultures
Separation of elite and popular cultures; the elite could participate down but the mass could not move up. The language of the educated
became standardized in a nation; dictionaries were begun and the literacy rate rose. On the other hand, the popular culture was mainly oral and was much more resistant to change. Polite manners became more important to the elite. In 1600, both shared delight in fairs, with jugglers, acrobats, traveling musicians, cockfights and bear baiting; and in Carnival, celebrated in the weeks before Lent; a common theme was "the world turned upside down"--role reversal.
Commerce and Industry of the 18th century
Merchant capitalism, domestic industry, and mercantilism grew rapidly.
Dutch economy 18th century
political power was gone, but it still led commerce, shipping, and finance; its efficient ships had
the lowest shipping rates and were the carriers for the world. Many East India companies formed,
including Prussian, Swedish, Venetian--but only the French, Dutch, British survived: they had the capital and the diplomatic, military, naval support. The winners made immense profits, with Britain dominant in Asia and America, France leader in Europe and the Middle East.
Asian trade was a gold drain, since Asians rejected European manufactured goods while Europeanswanted silks, porcelains, spices, teas--and Indian cottons
Trade in American colonies
trade base was sugar, brought from Asia ca. 1650, and the plantation system: tract of
land, capital investment, slave labor. The West Indies sugar trade was greater than the value of all
Asia trade to Britain. Slaves first reached Virginia by 1619, with rapid growth after 1650. Huge
slave trade to Jamaica--over 600,000 brought in, 1700-1786. Britain and New England dominated
slave trade, and it produced the vast capital that was to produce the Industrial Revolution and anchor the base of the new capitalism.
Trade in Eastern Europe
Trade with Eastern Europe, especially Russia and Poland, expanded greatly
Thomas "Diamond" Pitt
Born 1653, son of a parish priest; went to India, 1674; made fortune as "interloper," illegal trader. Bought English manor which controlled a "rotten borough," giving a seat in Parliament without election. Returned to India, again as "interloper" and also as legal trader; made enough to buy a diamond for 20,400 pounds--sold in Amsterdam for 135,000 pounds. Children became nobility; grandson was William Pitt, Prime Minister during the Seven Years War. Pittsburgh named for him.
Jean Joseph Laborde
Born 1724, U. Became trader, made vast wealth and built San Domingo
plantations. Involved in real estate and banking; helped finance French aid to US War of
Independence and Paris insurrection.
France after 1713
King lost power. Commercial expansion and widespead speculation. Louis XV was 5 in 1715, and nobles took advantage of a weak regent. Parliaments asserted their right to assent to taxes and laws by not enforcing laws they opposed. Thus organized privilege groups, aristocrats, checking the growth of absolutism.
Britain after 1713
Parliament conducted public business, with the House of Lords and the House of Commons,
made up of the wealthy and mainly representing money interests. Parliament was corrupt, slow,
expensive--but effective. Queen Anne died in 1714 and was replaced by George I of Hanover; his weakness made Parliament stronger, and Robert Walpole became the first "Prime" Minister. The Whigs, representing the great landed, London wealth, and lesser business, were a minority in Commons but dominated Lords.
The first of the Hanoverian dynasty who spoke no English and therefore relied heavily on the prime minister
King George II's chief minister until 1742 who worked for peace. He strengthened the role of Britain's cabinet and stabilized the political landscape, earning him the label as the first english "Prime Minister".
supporters of JIII who was known to non-supporters as the "Pretender." Many Jacobites hoped that if JIII gave up Catholicism he would become king of England. In 1745 "Bonnie Prince Charlie" landed in Scotland. The Jacobites
were crushed, and England moved to weaken the powerful Scots Highlanders.
The War of the Spanish Succession produced large scale national debt. South Sea
Company, formed in 1711 to exploit the Asiento.
founded the Bank of France and set up a Mississippi Company--which founded New Orleans and absorbed History of the Modern other trading companies. It received a monopoly of colonial trade and was authorized to assume the
entire French national debt--proposing to pay the debts by colonial profits. Shares in both companies rose rapidly in an orgy of speculation (the "Bubble"); then confidence was lost and a crash followed which ruined many investors.
Results of the bursting of the Mississippi Bubble for France
Bank of France was ended, and the growth of capitalism retarded a century. The French government repudiated much of the debt, (much purchased by speculators at a fraction of value); the action reduced faith in the government and meaningful tax reform was prevented.
Results of the bursting of the South Sea Bubble for GB
Walpole saved the principle institutions, established a sinking fund and ultimately paid
all debts. The crisis ended by giving the propertied, a stake in the credit of the nation especially since nobles paid taxes.
Established by Walpole for use in emergencies
Dates of the War of Austrian Succession
Dates of the Seven Years War
Commonalities of 7YW and WofAustSucc
the duel of Britain and France for
colonies, trade, and sea power; and the duel of Prussia and Austria for territory and military power in central Europe.
18th century warfare
slow, formal, elaborate, and indecisive. There was little national feeling; most used many foreign
mercenaries. Civilians were little affected; there was no war hysteria, and sides could be changed
Frederick the Great
freethinker, intellectual, writer, skeptic. King in 1740, he lost no time in using his father's carefully reserved army and wealth by invading Silesia, the rich upper valley of the Oder River--violating the Pragmatic Sanction on the grounds that Prussia needed the territory. French nobles, dominating the diplomatic corps and the army, pressured France into the war with the traditional Habsburg enemy.
devout and domineering, practical and methodical, she accomplished much.
Attacked, and facing rebellion from within, she rallied the Hungarian magnates with promises to
uphold their "liberties." In spite of Dutch and British subsidies, the combo of France, Spain, and
Prussia proved overwhelming. Maria Theresa made a separate peace with Prussia, but France took Bohemia and won the great battle of Fontenoy, taking Belgium. France also encouraged Charlie in the "45," the rebellion of Scots against England.
New Englanders and the British navy captured Louisville in Canada; the British navy cut the French off from their sugar colonies and Spanish trade.
Aix la Chapelle
Britain and France returned to the status quo ante
bellum: Britain returned Louisburg, France gave up Belgium. Prussia kept Silesia; Austria also lost
two Italian duchies to Bourbon rulers. The treaty showed the French weakness--unable to protect
their colonies on sea and unable to control the continent. Austria survived;Prussia had Silesia. A
new war was inevitable
most important and extremely influential office was that of the chancellor of state and minister of foreign affairs, which he held 1753-92 and where he had Maria Theresa's full trust. Thanks in large part to him, Habsburg Austria entered a treaty (1756) with her old enemy France (and later Russia and Sweden) against the Kingdom of Prussia to win back Silesia, which Austria lost to Prussia during the War of Austrian Succession. The rise of Prussia had revolutionized the balance of power. Kaunitz...proposed an alliance between Austria and France....[and] encouraged French
aspirations for Belgium in return for French support in the destruction of Prussia." Britain now
concluded an alliance with Prussia--and the "diplomatic revolution" was complete. One result was the
marriage of Marie Antoinette to the future Louis XVI, angering French progressives who hated the
"ruinous alliance" to Austria.
British and French colonies in the Americas
In America France controlled by far the most territory, but Britain had more people --a total of
perhaps two million whites, predominately English; Philadelphia had more people (40,000) than any English city except London. French had Indian allies.
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
British captured which forts?
Louisburg, Duquesne, and Quebec
7YW in Indian theater
India: was in chaos, with Moslem, Hindu, and Sikh fighting plus political dissolution. The British and the French established trade forts along
the coasts--independent tiny states, only desiring trade and not territory. But agents on the scene
saw chances for personal fame, profit.
This man was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown.
Peace of Paris
1763. The French minimized losses in the Treaty, but Britain received all Canada, with all territory east of Mississippi R. and Spain received all French holdings west of the`
Mississippi + New Orleans. France did get back its sugar islands; while it lost all its African slave
trading stations, it kept its stations in India. Prussia survived as a strong power. North America was now English , and India was exposed to piecemeal assault by Britain.
Diplomatic Revolution fo 1756
GB, Austria, Holland VS Spain, France, Bavaria, Prussia
GB, Holland, Prussia VS France, Spain, Austria, Russia
Peace of Hubertsburg
(1763) Prussia keeps Silesia, Austria gets Belgium (Aust. NL) back.
Results of Peace of Paris: France
Lose North America, Belgium. Keeps islands: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Haiti. Keep commercial stations in India, slave stations in Africa.
Results of Peace of Paris: Spain
Recieves all Fr. territory w. of MS river. New Orleans.
Results of Peace of Paris: Austria
Lost Silesia. Marie Antoinette married to Louis XVI.
Results of Peace of Paris: Prussia
Silesia. Volksgeist. Fred II becomes a pacifist.