Neuron Structures and Functions

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22 terms

sensory neuron

The stimulus is a change in the internal or external environment

interneuron

The stimulus is a neurotransmitter (chemical) released from a sensory neuron or another interneuron. Found in brain and spinal cord.

motor neuron

The stimulus is a neurotransmitter released from an interneuron. These neurons send messages to muscles or glands. *Glands need a message from the (word) before they can carry out their function.

dendrites

Neuron parts that detect the stimulus

cell body

Neuron part that contains most of the cytoplasm and the nucleus.

synapse

Space between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector. This is where neurotransmitters get released.

axon

Neuron part that sends an action potential(nerve impulse) away from the cell body

axon endings

Ends of axons that contain vesicles with NTs (neurotransmitter)

myelin sheath

Layer of lipid rich(fatty rich) cells wrapped around the axon to prevent electrolyte (Na+, K+) loss

effector

A muscle or a gland (respond to stimulus) that receives a message from a motor neuron

nodes of Ranvier

Gaps in myelin

3

# of sodium ions

2

# of potassium ions

action potential

nerve impulses

nerve

a bundle of sensory and/or motor neurons, side by side

neuron

nerve cell

Dendrites

short branches of a neuron that receives stimuli and conduct impulses to the cell body.

Cell Body

the center of metabolic activity in a neuron, it is where the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm are located.

Axon

the long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body

Sensory Neurons

carry impulses from outside and inside the body to the brain and spinal cord

Motor Neurons

carry response impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles or glands

interneurons

connect sensory neurons and motor neurons and carry impulses between them. They are concentrated in the brain and spinal cord

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