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Final Review Questions

The nervous system has three overlapping functions. Which of the following represents a logical sequence of these three functions?

Sensory input, integration, motor output

While studying for an exam, you reach for a beverage. To extend your arm, your ___ nervous system is activated

Somatic

The door slams shut loudly and you flinch. After a few seconds, you realize that your heart is beating very rapidly and forcefully. This response is the result of your ___ nervous system.

Autonomic

Complete the following analogy: Electrical wire is to electrical tape as peripheral neurons are to ___

Schwann cell

Each neuron in our bodies has a life span of ___

An average human life span

"Nerves" are found in the ___ while "tracts" are found in the ___.

PNS; CNS

The portion of an axon that communicates with its target cell is the ___.

Axon Terminal

The basis for differentiation between grey matter and white matter in the CNS is the presence of ___ in white matter.

Myelinated Fibers

___ are the most common structural type of neuron in humans.

Multipolar

When considering the relationship between a structural classification and a functional classification of neurons, it can be said that ___.

Essentially all bipolar neurons are sensory neurons

In a living neuron, which component provides resistance to current flow?

The Membrane

The outer cortex of gray matter present in the cerebellum is composed primarily of ___.

Neuron cell bodies

The brain contains ___ ventricles.

Four

The ___ of the brain is the location of our conscious mind.

Cerebral cortex

Random electrical stimulation of the precentral gyrus would be more likely to cause muscle contractions of the ___.

Face and hands

Sensory stimulation of which body area would be most likely to activate brain activity?

Lips and fingertips

The phrases "left brain" and "right brain" indicate that the two cerebral hemispheres display a phenomenon called ___.

Lateralization

Cerebral white matter in each hemisphere is important for ___.

Communication between the two hemispheres

Damaged basal nuclei, as in Parkinson's disease, result in ___.

The inability to monitor the intensity of movements

Which of the following brain regions is a major convergence area for most sensory input before it is sent on to the cerebral cortex?

Thalamus

Of the following brain regions, which, if severely damaged, would result in death?

Medulla oblongata

Professional ballet dancers have a particularly efficient ___.

Cerebellum

Why is the blood-brain barrier ineffective against alcohol?

Alcohol is lipid soluble

___ are stimulates when sound waves vibrate hair cells in the inner ear.

Mechanoreceptors

Which of the following pairs of receptors appear to play complementary roles in hair and hairless skin?

Meissner's corpuscle and hair follicle receptors

At which level of the somatosensory system are conscious decisions made about low-grade touch stimuli?

Perceptual level

When you first enter a movie theater, the smell of popcorn overwhelms you. Once the movie has ended, however, you don't notice the popcorn smell. You have experienced ___.

Adaption

An intensely painful stimulus is distinguished from a mildly painful one by:

A higher frequency of action potentials initiated.

A physician can determine the approximate location of a spinal injury simply by testing areas of the skin for numbness. These skin areas are referred to as ___.

Dermatomes

For conscious muscle movements, activity of the ___ is required.

Precommand areas

Quickly lifting your foot and leg after stepping on a rock is an example of a(n) ___.

Intrinsic reflex

The length of a muscle is communicated to the brain via a ___.

Muscle spindle

A Golgi tendon reflex involves ___.

Muscle relaxation and lengthening

The crossed-extensor reflex is important when:

You step barefoot on a sharp object

A synonym for the autonomic nervous system reflects its major function. The synonym is ___.

The involuntary nervous system

All somatic neurons and all ___ release acetylcholine.

Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system

How it is possible that norepinephrine can cause vasoconstriction in one location but vasodilation in another?

Receptor types differ in these tissues

The majority of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are housed within which cranial nerve?

Vagus

Predict the outcome of an experiment in which adrenal medulla cells are treated with nicotine.

Blood levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine decrease

Asthma patients suffer from attacks in which bronchiole smooth muscle constricts, making it hard to breath. Albuterol, a common asthma medication, works through which of the following steps?

Binds to β2-adrenergic receptors to enhance vasodilation

Which area of the body receives no innervation by the parasympathetic nervous system?

Sweat glands

The sympathetic division is involved in which of the following processes?

Regulating blood pressure, increasing glucose metabolism and decreasing urinary output

At the top of the autonomic nervous system hierarchy, the ___ controls most of the autonomic nervous system functions.

Hypothalamus

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