Spanish Culture and Civ Quiz 1
|el Renacimiento espanol||-This began after the middle ages, in which Spain now had a system of united territories. Thus, Spain was able to establish the first colonial empire. At first, the empire was somewhat fake due to the cultural and relgious diversity.|
|La Inquisicion y la expulsion de los judios||- During this time, the catholic kings wanted religious unity in Spain, so they punished the people who didnt practice the christian faith. |
- 1492- jews who refused to convert to Christianity were expelled from the country, many of which had been there since they arrived from North Africa in the 11th century.
-during their time in Spain, the jews directed banking, they were doctors, and many worked for the national government.
|el tribunal de la Inqusicion|| -established in 1481|
- was created to look for and punish "heretics" aka jews.
|Los Moriscos (Moors)|| -these were arabs that stayed in Spain after the reconquest|
- many of them converted to Christianity by force
- during their time, they made irrigation systems for the nobles.
-in the 17th century, 400,000 of these people were expelled from Spain due to relgious reasons
|el descubrimiento de America|| - this was more or less an accident|
- Colon was looking for a new path to China, and he and his crew arrived here in 1492.
- at this time, Spain was the considered the first world empire.
|la peninsula italiana|| - In the 1500's, Spain and France fought constantly over this area, and Spain won. |
- the counts (condes) of barcelona already occupied the southern parts of this area (Sicilia y Cerdena)
|Juana||- 1506- this person, who had the nickname "the crazy woman" (la loca), was a daughter of the catholic kings that rose to the thrown|
- She went crazy when Felipe 1 died in 1506, and also because of the political affairs of her husband and father, and later her own son, so as a result she was jailed.
- later, the son of this person inherited the Spanish crown and received power from America, Italy, and more.
|Carlos V|| - this was another Spanish leader who fought for religious unity. |
- he was the son of Felipe and was very intolerant and preferred to fight with his rivals: Francisco I de Francia, Enrique VIII de Inglaterra, los turcos, and more.
|1519|| - this was the year that the conquest of Mexico was carried out by Hernan Cortes. |
- there was already an indigenous population that lived there (the aztecs), who were overthrown by only 600 soliders and 12 horses.
|Marina <<la malinche>>||Before Cortes robbed the ships of Velazquez (governer of Cuba), he fled to Veracruz where he and his army found this woman, an indigenous woman that helped Cortes navigate the unknown land.|
|Tenochtitlan|| - this was the empire capital in Mexico during the conquest, which today is known as the capital of Mexico |
- with the help of Marina, the Spanish overcame the aztecs here, where they made prisoner to Moctezuma and his nephew, Cuauhtemoc.
|Cuauhtemoc||- this was Moctezuma's nephew, who was burned alive because he would not confess where the aztecs treasure was hidden .|
|mayans||- these were the indigenous that lived in Peru before its conquest.|
- they are known for being very an advanced culture, known for their incredible cities such as Pachu Pichu and Cuzco.
- their empire was very rich, and they had a highway system that extended through the Andes, out to distant lands, which today are parts of Bolivia, Ecuador and Chile
|Francisco Pizzaro||- this was the person that conquered the Incan empire, and took over Peru in 1533 with the taking of Cuzco.|
|Vazco Nunez de Balboa|| - this is considered an acheivement of the Spanish empire|
-1513- this person discovered the land that today is Panama.
|Magallanes y Elanco|| - this is considered an acheivement of the Spanish empire|
-1519- these two explorers explored the Phillipines, las islas molucas y el cabo de buena esperanza.
|comida|| - this is considered an acheivement of the Spanish empire|
chocolate, tomato, maiz, potato, sugar cane, and vanilla are examples, which were all brought over from America.
|The end of Carlos V reign|| - after so much fighting from the relgious wars, this was the time that Spain became impoverished|
- 1555- Carlos V retired to a Yuste monistery, and his son, Fellipe II took the thrown.
|Felipe II||- This was the king of Spain from 1555-1598, and he was very controversial. He was the son of Carlos V.|
Many viewed him as one of the greatest emperors of Spain (very pro-spain, hardworking), others thought he was a tyrant.
-He maintained the power from territories that asked for independence, for example Holland who was mostly protestant-filled. (spain=christian)
|la batalla de Lepanto (1571)|| 1453- the turks gained power of constantinople|
- an army of 200 ships was made to fight the turkish marine army.
- the assembeled army won this battle, and over 30,000 turks died, while 10,000 were made prisoner 15,000 Christians were rescued, and 130 turkish ships were captured.
|Maria Tudor de Inglaterra|| - Fellipe II married this woman because he aspired to be the king of England and convert protestants to christians.|
- he also wanted to have a son with her so that his son could have the royal blood of 2 countries and rule both, but she died so his plan didnt work
|la <<armada invencible>>||- 1587- this was an assembly of 130 ships and 30,000 men that suffered defeat in 1888 due to the massive storms at sea and it wasnt as strong as the English navy. |
- this was launched when the catholic queen of Scotland and France was killed (Maria Estuardo) by the orders of Isabel from England. Felipe and Maria shared similar views on christianity, thus, this was launched,
|economic bankruptcy||- Spain was the first nation to create an empire, but it was also the first to lose it due to this..|
|4 reasons why there was a decrease in Spanish population between centuries 15-16|| 1) expelling of jews and moors|
2) people leaving for the new world
3) lack of workers
4) constant relgious wars
|el siglo de oro||- the 16th and 17th centuries of Spain are known as this.|
|4 reasons why "el siglo de oro" got its name|| 1) big discoveries|
2) conquering of american territories
3) enrichment of the empire due to colonization
|el renacimiento|| - this began in Italy in the 15th century and extended through out all of Europe. |
- the biggest characteristics of this time were humanity, the sciences and artistic creation.
|Ausias March and Joan Bosca||- these two were the first to write potry during el renacimiento|
- they introduced italian themes and styles of poetry to Spain, including <<el soneto>>
- overall, poetry in this time, as presented by these two, strove for human harmony, like love (in the name of God). they also wrote of anguish and pain during times of suffering
|Garcilasco de la Vega (1501-1536)||- this was the most pure writer of the renacimiento|
- he wrote in Spanish, Latin, and Italian, and his specialty was short poems of nature and love.
-he was a poet,a noble,and he died fighting for the Spanish Empire.
- he followed the <<Bosca style>>, which described the use of 11 syllables in every line, which other poets used after him. this style started a poetry revolution in castillian poetry
|la novela picaresca|| - this was a novel that portrayed the realism in life of the low class. the central figure is a vagabond that has lived his life with the majority (the poor) while the minority (rich) prospered|
- also, the central figure of this novel was from a humble class who invented tricks to overcome famine
|El barroco|| - this literature presented a new type of glorification of the works of the Church and the Christian faith.|
- it was often ostenatious and fluid, praising the church and christianity, and the importance of the relationship with god.
|los misticos|| this was another reflection of religious motives, specifically adressing relgious spirituality. |
-stressed the importance of having a direct connection with god
|Santa Teresa de Jesus (1515- 1582)|| - this person wrote about misticism, with a specific emphasis in earthly and divine. |
- she also wrote about the presence of god in everyday objects of life ex) <<vida>> talks about the elevation of the spirit
|San Juan de la Cruz|| - known as the most defined poets of misticism. |
- expressed his extreme views in wanting to arrive at a "married state" with god.
- his works are filled with everyday things.
|el teatro del siglo de oro|| - this maintains its origen in religion|
- the first demonstration was called <<misterios y autos>>, a work that represented the church.
- during the golden age, playwrights brought theses to the palaces of the nobles and the towns as well
|Lope de Vega||- he was the best example of Spanish theatre. |
- he attended very little schoo, but was self-taught
- he was a priest and fought against England in the invincible army.
- his works were all about teaching and entertaining the public, and he unified elements from his ancestors in developing central characters. (made over 1500 plays)
|Pedro Calderon de la Barca|| - he was similiar to Lope de Vega, but he talked a lot more about "honor", which was ironic because he wrote about masculinity in a derrogatory sense concerning women. |
ex) el medico y su honra
- wrote over 200 plays
|Tirso de Molina|| - known as the most signifcant playwright after Lope de Vega|
- he wrote about human psychology in his 400 works
-famous for the play <<el condenado por desconfiado>> and his most famous character <<don juan>>
|Luis de Gongora||- he was a poet and a priest from Cordoba |
- he was punished by the bishop because he was more interested in other things besides religion (choir, etc)
- at first, he wrote romantic songs, but later, long poems which were confusing due to the hyroglifics.
- his style is known as "gongorismo", which was hard to understand due to all the symbolism.
|Francisco de Quevado|| - he was a noble and a well-educated man who was a great poet in writing "satire", also included elements of gongorismo |
- he wrote over 900 satirical poems
|la narracion breve|| - these were <<novelas ejemplares>>, or short novels published by Miguel de Cervantes peculiar aspects of life during the time period. |
- he offered examples of good and bad human conduct so that the reader could benefit morally.
|Maria de Zayas|| - she was the opposite of Calderon|
- the first feminist of Spain that wrote short novels.
- her characters are usually women and her imagery is usually shocking
ex) <<la burlada Aminta>>, protagonist is abused by another man, so she takes revenge into her own hands.