**GEOLOGY FINAL (7-10)

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Detrital Sedimentary rocks

rocks that form from the accumulation of materials that originate and are transported as solid particles derived from both mechanical and chemical weathering.

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

sedimentary rock consisting of material that was precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means.

The main minerals of detrital rocks?

Clay, Quarts,Micas,Feldspars

Common Chemical Sedimentary rocks?

Limestone, Calcite

Limestone

main rock forming mineral.

Clastic`

from the greek work "broken", consist of discrete fragments and particles that are cemented and compacted together. Although cement is present in the spaces between particles, the openings are rarely filled.

Nonclastic

crystalline texture in which the minerals form a pattern of interlocking crystals.

Bioclasts

are skeletal fragments of marine or land organisms that are found in sedimentary rocks laid down in a marine environment—especially limestone varieties

Agents of Metamorphism

Heat, Pressure, Active Fluids

Foliated

gives the rock layered appearance, a term for a linear arrangement of textural features often exhibited by metamorphic rocks.

Non-Foliated

metamorphic rocks that do not exhibit foliation.

Schistosity

"fish Scale" appearance (mica minerals are the most common to form this texture)

principle of superposition

each bed of rock is older than the one above and younger than the one below layers of a cake

Principle of original horizontality

means that layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position.

Principle of cross cutting relationships

when a fault cuts rhrough other rocks, or when magma intrudes and crystallizes, a rock or fault is younger than any rock through which it cuts.

inclusions

are fragments of one rock unit that have ben enclosed within another.

angular unconformity

consist of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat lying strata

Disconformity

a type of unconformity in which the beds above and below are parallel.

Nonconformity

an unconformity in which older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks are overlain by younger sedimentary strata.

Principle of fossil succession

fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content.

Principle of Lateral Continuity

layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous.

Eon

the largest time unit on the gologic time scale, next in order of magnitude above era

Era

major division on the geologic time scale? they are divided into shorter units called periods.

period

a basic unit of the geologic time scale that is a subdivision of era

Structural Geology

a branch of geology which study all types of crustal deformations

compressional stress

differential stress that squeezes and shortens a rock mass

tensional stress

stress that pulls apart or elongates a rock unit

Shear Stress

the movement of one part of a rock body past another. its similar tot he slippage that occurs between individual playing cards

Brittle deformation

rocks that break into smaller pieces after elastic limit is surpassed

Ductile deformation

is a type of solid state flow that produces a change in the shape of an object without fracturing

Anticline

usually arise by upfolding, or arching of sedimentary layers and are sometimes spectacularly displayed along highways

Syncline

usually sink or downfolds, or troughs association with anticlines

Monoclines

are large, steplike folds in otherwise horizontal sedimentary strata.

Basin

circular, downwarped structure, younger rocks in the middle, older on the outside

Dome

circular, upwarped structure, older rocks in the middle, younger on the outside

Dip-Slip Faults

faults in which movement is primarily parallel to the dip (incline) of the fault

Normal Faults

created by tensional stress, crust is growing longer and getting thinner

reverse fault

created by compressive stress the crust is shorten and thicken (dip inclined at angle more than 45 degrees)

thrust faults

is a reverse fault but inclined at less than 45 degrees

Strike Slip fault

a fault in which the dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the trend or strike of the fault

Transform Fault

are large strike slip faults that cut through the lithosphere and accomodate motion between two large tectonic plates.

Joints

are fractures along which no appreciable displacement has occurred

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