Detrital Sedimentary rocks
rocks that form from the accumulation of materials that originate and are transported as solid particles derived from both mechanical and chemical weathering.
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
sedimentary rock consisting of material that was precipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means.
from the greek work "broken", consist of discrete fragments and particles that are cemented and compacted together. Although cement is present in the spaces between particles, the openings are rarely filled.
are skeletal fragments of marine or land organisms that are found in sedimentary rocks laid down in a marine environment—especially limestone varieties
gives the rock layered appearance, a term for a linear arrangement of textural features often exhibited by metamorphic rocks.
principle of superposition
each bed of rock is older than the one above and younger than the one below layers of a cake
Principle of original horizontality
means that layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position.
Principle of cross cutting relationships
when a fault cuts rhrough other rocks, or when magma intrudes and crystallizes, a rock or fault is younger than any rock through which it cuts.
consist of tilted or folded sedimentary rocks that are overlain by younger, more flat lying strata
an unconformity in which older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks are overlain by younger sedimentary strata.
Principle of fossil succession
fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content.
Principle of Lateral Continuity
layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions; in other words, they are laterally continuous.
the movement of one part of a rock body past another. its similar tot he slippage that occurs between individual playing cards
is a type of solid state flow that produces a change in the shape of an object without fracturing
usually arise by upfolding, or arching of sedimentary layers and are sometimes spectacularly displayed along highways
created by compressive stress the crust is shorten and thicken (dip inclined at angle more than 45 degrees)
Strike Slip fault
a fault in which the dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the trend or strike of the fault
are large strike slip faults that cut through the lithosphere and accomodate motion between two large tectonic plates.