Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?
had weak super egos
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is a(n) ________ test.
Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by
he selected people with qualities that he admired
Maslow's description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he
Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation?
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for actions is
Assessing an individual's standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a ________ personality description.
The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her
Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete
Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected
In every one of 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of
The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior.
a dissociative disorder
William, an airplane pilot, is unable to remember anything of a bombing raid in which his plane was severely damaged and two crew members were killed. Because he himself suffered no physical injuries, psychologists suspect that William probably suffers from
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of
Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing
Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from
disorganized and fragmented thinking
Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by
Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter
An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.
The DSM-IV-TR does NOT
A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
Psychological disorders in which people lose contact with reality and experience irrational ideas and distorted perceptions are known as ________ disorders.
Low birth weight is a known risk factor for
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as
led to harsh ineffective remedies
The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.
Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)
Obsessive thoughts typically ________ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically ________ anxiety.
Some psychologists believe that due partly to a broader definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been overdiagnosing
N america; are increased
People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.
Adelle's feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?
Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of
The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by ________ therapists.
Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult's psychological disorder by exploring that person's childhood experiences
A statistical summary of some 475 psychotherapy outcome studies led researchers in 1980 to report that
Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called ________ relaxation.
Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of
One possible explanation for the delayed effect of antidepressant drugs is that the increased availability of serotonin seems to promote
Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of
During a marriage counseling session, the therapist suggests to Mr. and Mrs. Gallo that they each restate their spouse's comments before making their own. The therapist was applying a technique most closely associated with
replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.
Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to
Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________.
A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage
men in cultures that value individualism. 100%
Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among
Culturally modeled guides for how to act in various situations are called
Whether a person exercises regularly is best predicted by his or her attitude about
Noncompetitive contact between members of two different ethnic groups is likely to reduce prejudice when the contact is between individuals with
The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of
According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from
Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to
women enjoy aggresive sexual behaviors
Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that
What determined whether college freshmen who had been randomly paired for a Welcome Week dance liked each other?
Social psychologists have observed people's willingness to pick up dropped books and pencils in order to study the
the central route to persuasion.
Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates