Psychology Chapter 11-16

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MOTIVATION

A NEED OR DESIRE THAT ENERGIZES AND DIRECTS BEHAVIOR.

INSTINCT

A COMPLEX BEHAVIOR THAT IS RIGIDLY PATTERNED THROUGHOUT A SPECIES AND IS UNLEARNED.

DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY

THE IDEA THAT A PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED CREATES AN AROUSED TENSION STATE (A DRIVE) THAT MOTIVATES AN ORGANISM TO SATISFY THE NEED.

HOMEOSTASIS

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

INCENTIVE

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

GLUCOSE

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

SET POINT

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

BASAL METABOLIC RATE

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

ANOREXIA NERVOSA

an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

BULIMIA NERVOSA

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

BINGE-EATING DISORDER

significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.

SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

REFRACTORY PERIOD

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

SEXUAL DISORDER

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

ESTROGENS

sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females that by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promotion sexual receptivity.

TESTOSTERONE

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

SEXUAL ORIENTATION

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

FLOW

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with dimi, a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

TASK LEADERSHIP

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

SOCIAL LEADERSHIP

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

EMOTION

a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience

JAMES-LANGE THEORY

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

CANNON-BARD THEORY

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

TWO-FACTOR THEORY

Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal

POLYGRAPH

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).

CATHARIS

emotional release the catharis hypothesis maintains that releasing agressive energy relieves agressive urges

FEEL-GOOD, DO-GOOD PHENOMENON

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.

ADAPTATION-LEVEL PHENOMENON

our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

RELATIVE DEPRIVATION

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE

an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease

HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine

STRESS

the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages--alarm, resistance, exhaustion

CORONARY HEART DISEASE

the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries

TYPE A

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

TYPE B

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ILLNESS

Literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.

PSYCHONEUROLMMUNOLOGY (PNI)

the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.

LYMPHOCYTES

the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.

COPING

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

PROBLEM-FOCUSED COPING

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.

EMOTION-FOCUSED COPING

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

AEROBIC EXERCISE

sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety

BIOFEEDBACK

a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension

COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE(CAM)

as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.

PERSONALITY

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

FREE ASSOCIATION

a thought process in which ideas (words or images) suggest other ideas in a sequence

PSYCHOANALYSIS

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

UNCONSCIOUS

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

ID

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

EGO

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

SUPEREGO

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

OEDIPUS COMPLEX

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

IDENTIFICATION

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

FIXATION

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

DEFENSE MECHANISMS

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

REPRESSION

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

REGRESSION

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

REACTION FORMATION

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.

PROJECTION

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

RATIONALIZATION

defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

DISPLACEMENT

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

DENIAL

defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

PROJECTIVE TEST

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

THEMATIC APPRECEPTION TEST (TAT)

a projective test in which prople express their inner feelings and interests throught hte stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

RORSCHACH UNKBLOT TEST

the most widely used projective test, a set of of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

TERROR-MANAGEMENT THEORY

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death

SELF-ACTUALIZATION

according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

SELF-CONCEPT

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

TRAIT

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

PERSONALITY INVENTORY

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI)

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

EMPIRICALLY DERIVED TEST

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

PERSONAL CONTROL

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpness.

EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL

the perception that one controls one's own fate

LEARNED HELPLESSNESS

the hoplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.

POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

SELF

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

SPOTLIGHT EFFECT

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)

SELF-ESTEEM

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

SELF-SERVING BIAS

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns

ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYOERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

a psychological disorder marked by the appearence by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

MEDICAL MODEL

the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

DSM-IV-TR

the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

ANXIETY DISORDERS

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

PANIC DISORDER

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

PHOBIA

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)

an anxiety disorder that involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event; characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal; jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

POST-TRAUMATIC GROWTH

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

SOMATOFORM DISORDER

psychological disorder in whish the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.

CONVERSION DISORDER

a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found

HYPOCHONDRIASIS

a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings

DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER (DID)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.

MOOD DISORDER

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities

MANIA

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

BIPOLAR DISORDER

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

SCHIZOPHRENIA

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

DELUSIONS

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

PERSONALITY DISORDER

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

ECLECTIC APPROACH

an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

PSYCHOTHERAPY

treatment, involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth

PSYCHOANALYSIS

Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight

RESISTANCE

in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

INTERPRETATION

in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight

TRANSFERENCE

in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).

PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY

therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight

INSIGHT THERAPIES

a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses

CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY

a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)

ACTIVE LISTENING

Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance.

BEHAVIOR THERAPY

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

COUNTERCONDITIONING

a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.

EXPOSURE THERAPIES

behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid

SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION

a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias

VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY

an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking

AVERSIVE CONDITIONING

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

TOKEN ECONOMY

an operant conditioning procedure in which , an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.

COGNITIVE THERAPY

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY

a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

FAMILY THERAPY

therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

REGRESSION TOWARD THE MEAN

The tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.

META-ANALYSIS

A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE

clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences

BIOMEDICAL THERAPY

prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system

PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS

drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder

TARDIVE DYSKINESIA

involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors

ANTIANXIETY DRUGS

drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS

drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety; different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters

ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

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