Eustachian tube in infants shorter, wider, straighter than in older children and adults, and this may contribute to infections.
Walls of ear canal are pliable because of underdeveloped cartilage and bony structure. 530
Ear alignment observed
Top of ear s/cross imaginary line drawn from outer canthus of eye to occiput.
Pits in front of ears or skin tags or any abnormalities of ears may be associated w/kidney disorder.
Contains receptors of 8th cranial (acoustic)nerve
2 main functions
Infants' eyes may occasionally cross until about 6 weeks of life.
Tears are scant or absent for first 2-4 weeks of life.
Brain and nerve cell growth and specialization are most rapid from birth until about 4 yr. of age
Instilling ear drops in infants
pull pinna of ear down and back.
Instilling ear drops in children
pull auricle of ear up and back to straighten external auditory canal. 531
An acute infection of external canal
Often refered to as swimmer's ear
Pain and tenderness on manipulating the pinna or tragus.
Acute Otitis Media
Pathophysiology Inlammation of middle ear
Occurs most often after upper respiratory infection
Caused by various microorganisms, such as Streptococcal pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae
Infants more rone because of ear anatomy
More common 6-24 months of age
May be related to:
Increased respiratory infections
2nd hand smoke
Admittance into daycare
Feeding bottles left in bed
OM is considered chronic if condition persists for more than 3 months
Analygisics for pain
Antihistimines - helps to dry up fluid (for comfort measures - not used in acute)
S/S of ear infection
Rubbing or pulling at ear
Rolling head from side to side
Speech development problems