DNA is the --- for living organisms
RNA ---s DNA
RNA codes for ---
DNA codes for ---
The process in which DNA codes for RNA is called what?
The process in which RNA codes for proteins is called what?
What does RNA do specifically for DNA?
stops DNA from working to hard so the RNA makes the proteins
The nucleotide Adenine always links up with --- on a DNA strand
The nucleotide Thynine always links up with --- on a DNA strand
The nucleotide Cytosine always links up with --- on a DNA strand
The nucleotide Guanine always links up with --- on a DNA strand
to cut out useless DNA
What links nucleotides together?
What the tools used in Eukaryote DNA replication?
polymerates and helocase
Polymers do what in Eukaryote DNA replication?
link the nucleotides together
Helocases do what during Eukaryote DNA replication?
unzip, or divide, the DNA strands
DNA is made of two strands which means that it is --
Amino acids make what?
RNA has --- strand(s)
RNA uses the nucleotide --- instead of ---
What are the three types of RNA?
mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
mRNA is nicknamed --- because it is the ---
messenger RNA; code for protein
rRNA is nicknamed --- because it ---
ribosomal RNA; together with proteins makes up a ribosome
ATP always becomes ---
ATP is always --- and becomes ADP when it becomes ---
ATP uses --- phosphates
ADP uses --- phosphates
Light Dependent Reactions always use ---
What is the output of Light Dependent Reactions?
ATP and NADPH
Light Independetn Reactions always turn carbon dioxide into what?
What cycle is used during Light Independent Reactions?
outer membrane, inner membrane, stroma, granum, lumen, and thylakoids
Where do Light Dependent Reactions take place?
Enzyme is another word for what?
The Calvin Cycle is run by what?
Name the steps, in order, of the Calvin Cycle
takes in carbon dioxide, gives off sugar, uses ATP and NADPH as a power source
What was concurred in the Pigment lab?
The pigment from the leaf had a higher affinity for the solvent than the paper
In the pigement lab, we concurred that lower molecular weights ---
Where does celluar respiration occur?
What do you do when you run out of oxygen?
use fermentation instead of respiration
Fermentation replaces the ---
What are two types of fermentation?
lactic acid; ethyl alcohol
Photosynthesis is the --- of celluar respiration
What is the main purpose of photsynthesis?
Where does photosynthesis take place?
What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
cardon dioxide; water
What is the main purpose of celluar respiration?
What is the purpose of Photosystem I?
to transfer electrons to NADP and form NADPH
First researcher to transform non-deadly bacteria into deadly bacteria was ---
When is a point mutation also a frameshift mutation?
when it causes all triplets downstream from it to be changed, as when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted from a strand
The purpose of water in photosynthesis is ---
replaces the electrons lost from photosystem II
What is the result of water in photsynthesis?
oxygen and hydrogen ions are created
This researcher said "the mass of a plant does not come from the soil it is in"
When DNA is replicated, this enzyme finds the appropriate nucleotide and matches it up with its compliment on the original strand
What is the reaction that takes place on the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
The purpose of plant pigments is to ---
The two electron carriers in cellular respiration are ---
Determined that A always equals T and C always equals G
The reason it is possible to make two identical copies of a segment of DNA is because the nucleotides in the two strands are ---
In order to replicate DNA, you have to do this first
split the strand
Organisms that make their own food are called ---
Energy source used in the Calvin cycle
The contents of a sugar molecule are eliminated from your body as what molecule?
When your body lacks oxygen, this is the only way that NADH can be recycled
Awarded Nobel Prize for figuring out what DNA looks like
Watson and Crick
Process of creating a protein from a strand of mRNA is called
--- is not found in RNA
In celluar respiration, the breaking of bonds results in---
What are the three reactions in Celluar Respiration?
glycolysis; acetyl CoA; Kreb's Cycle
What occurs in the cytolplasm during celluar respiration?
glucose bonds break into two separate bonds
NADH is a what?
What happens in the matrix of a mitochondria during celluar respiration?
more bonds break and result in two cardon dioxide molecules and two NADPH molecules
Where does the Kreb's Cycle take place?
Who stretched out DNA strands and managed to line it up so that we could look into it?
Who came up with the idea of base-pairing?
Watson and Crick
Proteins control ---
marker; muscles; channels; enzymes
this scientist used Pneumonia bacteria in mice and discovered transformation
this scientist used a transformation agent to show that enzymes digest different parts...DNA is the agent
Nucleotides are made up of ---
phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base
this scientist discovered that a DNA strand is a duble-helix
Watson and Crick
What make up a chromatin?
tightly coiled chromatin
string of amino acids
chain of sugars
scientist that used a candle and plant under glass
scientist that used a candle and plant under glass with light
stacks of thylakoids