Bones and Joints
What are the 2 components of the skeletal system?
Organ / Connective Tissue
The word bone refers to an _____ or _____.
Collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite ground substance
Bone, the connective tissue (bony connective tissue) has a matrix composed of _____ and _____.
_____ gives strength under tensile forces.
Forces that try to tear the skeleton apart are known as _____.
True or False: Bone and the connective tissue are not good at resisting twisting/torsion forces.
True or False: the matrix of bone, hydroxyapatite and collagen are stronger when combined together than when separate.
Bony connective tissue, other types of connective tissue, nervous and epithelial elements
Bone, the organ is composed primarily of _____, _____, _____ and _____.
What is the only tissue type not seen in bones?
Provides structure, support and protection, essential for locomotion and movement, site of blood cell formation, storehouse for inorganic minerals, and as an indicator of sex, age, height, weight, geographic ancestry and (to some extent) medical history
List 5 major functions of the skeletal system.
Blood cell formation is called _____
Flat bones / almost all bones
Hematopoiesis (or blood cell formation) occurs in the _____ bones of adults and _____ bones of children.
True or False: 39% of bony connective tissue is calcium.
Pregnant women not making enough calcium to give to their fetus will show signs of what disease?
The humorous in a growing individual is (#) separate pieces of bone.
Head protects the soft tissue of the brain, the ribs protect the heart the vertebral column protects the nerves and spine and some tissues act as shock absorbers
List 4 ways the skeleton acts to protect the body.
The bone shaft and primary center of ossification
Associated with areas of articulation or sites of strong muscle attachment, the _____ is the secondary center of ossification.
A thin membrane that separates the medullary cavity from the bony connective tissue in long bones.
Epiphyseal Plate (aka Disk)
Connects the diaphysis and epiphysis
The epiphyseal plate is composed of _____ cartilage
False (once the person goes through puberty)
True or False: the epiphyseal plate is replaced with bony connective tissue by the time a child reaches the age of 5.
Membrane covering the outer bone
Membrane covering the inner bone
The cavity located at the center of a long bone.
True or False: A thin membrane separates the medullary cavity from bony connective tissue in long bones.
The medullary cavity is filled with a yellow bone marrow composed of _____.
Cartilage covering the bone where it articulates with other bones.
Articular cartilage is composed of _____ cartilage.
Surface features that present as linear (line, ridge and crest) are _____
Surface features that present as rounded (tubercles, protuberance, tuber/tuberosity, trochaner and malleolus).
Surface features that present as projections (spine and/or process)
Surface features which project into the surface of a bone are called _____
Depressions (groove, sulcus, fossa, fovea and cavity) and passageways (foramen, canal, meatus) are examples of what type of surface feature.
Elevation / Excavation
The medial malleolus is an example of an _____ while the nasal cavity is an example of an _____.
A smooth, glossy surface for bones to articulate, covered by the articular cartilage.
This type of bony connective tissue is what makes bones lightweight.
The warehouse for manufacture of blood cells.
In children, blood cells are manufactured in the spongy bone and the _____.
Cancellous or trabecular
List 2 other names given for spongy bone.
This type of bone is formed of numerous bony struts called trabeculi
Compact bone is also known as _____ bone.
This type of bone is composed of osteons
Osteons are also known as _____.
A dense packing of bony connective tissue is called _____.
Concentric layers of bony connective tissue located within compact bone are called _____.
Blood vessels / nerves
The central canal contains _____ and _____.
Osteonic or Haversian
The central canal is also known by what two other names?
True or false: Osteocytes are just as well vascularized as spongy bone.
Holes found between lamellae are known as _____.
What type of cells are found within the lacunae?
Passageways connecting lacunae to each other and the central canal.
Lacunae / central canal
Canaliculi connect _____ to each other and the _____.
Canals that connect the central canals to each other are known as _____ canals.
Perforating canals connect _____ in the osteon to those in the spongy bone and medullary cavity.
The bone found underlying articular cartilage, making up facet surface is called _____ bone.
False (variation of compact bone, no passageways)
True or False: Subchondral bone is a variation of spongy bone.
False (shiny surface)
The lack of passageways in the subchondral bone give it a matte surface.
Bone cells that lay down new bony connective tissue.
Growth, development and repair
Osteoblasts tend to be most active during periods of ____, _____, and _____.
Central canal / periosteum
Osteoblasts are located within _____ and beneath _____.
True or False: Over a 7 year period, osteoblasts replace the entire skeleton with new bony connective tissue by repairing tiny stress fractures that occur each day.
When an osteoblast becomes entirely surrounded by bony connective tissue it becomes a(n) _____.
Former osteoblasts that are managerial in nature.
Osteocytes reside within the _____.
Maintain surrounding bony connective tissue and regulate mineral content.
Osteocytes are responsible for what two functions?
Large and multinucleated cells which originate from the fusion of several monocytes are called _____.
Destroy bony connective tissue
The function of an osteoclast is to _____.
The term used to describe the process by which osteoclasts destroy bony connective tissue is _____.
Bone cells responsible for breaking down damaged bone material are known as ____.
Growth, development and repair
Osteoclasts are active during _____, _____, and _____ processes.
Bone is said to be _____, meaning its shape can change.
Give an example of how bone is moldable.
A bone remodels in response to the forces traveling through it.
What is Wolff's Law
True or False: where bone growth is concerned, many bones are dual-natured.
Intramembranous bone (aka dermal)
Bone that starts as a membrane-like (stiff jello) substance.
Top of the skull / clavicle
Give 2 examples of intramembranous bones.
Endochondral bone (aka cartilaginous)
Bone that starts as cartilage-like substance
Bones at the base of the skull, all postcranial bones, parts of the clavicle
Give 3 examples of endochondral bone.
True or False: the bulk of the clavicle is intramembranous but the ends are endochondral.
Template of hyaline cartilage forms. Cartilage disintegrates and excavates interior of the template, blood vessels invade bringing undifferentiated connective tissue cells. Connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts which start forming spongy bone. Periosteum forms and osteoblasts beneath periosteum form compact bone. Further growth takes place along two different pathways.
What are the 5 steps in the ontogenetic process of endochondral bone
False (it forms at the same time)
True or False: In the ontogenetic process, the periosteum forms after connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts.
Growth between the epiphysis and the diaphysis is called _____.
True or False: In interstitial growth, the new bony connective tissue will create a longer diaphysis over time.
What is left of the mesenchymal tissue after ossification is called the _____.
True or False: In early fetal development there is a mat of blood vessels. Mesenchymal tissue condenses around this mat to form the periosteum.
3, 2, 1
Put these steps of Interstitial growth in order: 1. Epiphyseal plate ossifies and growth ceases 2. Epiphyseal plate is a site of active growth 3. Blood vessels invade ends of bone which become secondary ossification centers.
Growth indicated by an overall increase in size is called _____.
New compact bone is deposited by osteoblasts just below the periosteum and osteoclasts at the inner bone surface destroy bone and enlarge the medullary cavity (if present); remodel (replace) compact/spongy bone interface.
Describe the process of appositional growth.
1, 4, 3, 2
Put the following steps of the ontogenetic process in intramembranous bone in order: 1. Membrane forms around blood vessels, 2. Remaining growth takes place via process resembling appositional growth. 3. At the same time, periosteum forms; underlying connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts which start forming compact bone below the periosteum. 4. Undifferentiated connective tissue cells around blood vessels differentiate into osteoblasts, which start forming spongy bone.
Vitamin C and D
A deficiency of what 2 vitamins can cause problems with bone growth?
This vitamin is necessary for proper collagen formation.
A deficiency of this vitamin is responsible for scurvy.
Rickets / osteomalacia
A vitamin D deficiency is responsible for _____ in children and _____ in adults.
_____ is a vitamin made by the body or obtained through diet.
The body uses _____ from the environment to generate Vitamin D.
Vitamin D is necessary for proper _____ of the bones.
An excess of secretion of the _____ leads to bone thinning and weakening.
When the Parathyroid hormone is overstimulated it leads to an excess of _____ in the blood supply.
Gigantism / Acromegaly
An excess of growth hormone in children leads to _____; in adults, to _____.
A hormonal disorder, usually developed as a result of a benign tumor, which causes swelling, skin thickening, tissue growth, and bone enlargement especially in your hands, face and feet.
Disease caused by a vitamin D deficiency which causes pain and chronic fatigue.
A disease presenting in children, caused by a vitamin D deficiency, which causes a bowing of the legs.
A deficit of growth hormone in children leads to _____.
In the remodeling of a hard callus, these cells remove the bony callus and reform new bone structure.
The reduction of bone mass/density due to deossification is called_____.
True or False: Osteoporosis most commonly affects middle aged and elderly women.
True or False: by the time a man has reached 65 his rate of osteoporosis will catch up with that of a woman's.
A disease seen most commonly in post-menopausal women.
Men being treated for _____ may show signs of osteoporosis.
True or False: osteoporosis causes a vitamin D deficiency.
True or False: women and men have a similar bone mass.