Nutrition

97 terms by jacmitch 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

final test

CHO,p=___ cals per gram

4

Fat= ____ cals per gram

9

___ kcal as glucose circulating through blood

40 kcal

______ kcal as TG

100,000

_____kcal as protein

25,000

BMI

normal girls around 20-25
normal guys around 15-20

25=_____ 30____

overweight , obese

Metabolic syndrome is____

syndrome X
high blood pressure
increased risk of diabetes
cvd disease
heart disease

BMI male/female averages

15
25

denser you are the _____ you are

leaner

types of measuring body composition

underwater weighing
skin fold measures

underwater weighing

lean water weight denser than fat
problem: need pool and subject

skin fold measures

fat under skin measured
estimated % from fat measurement of triceps
problem: fat on arm may not represent total fat

research methods

expensive, not widely available

easy methods of BMI measurement

Pinch test
waist >chest

positive E balance

overweight

negative E balance

thin, possibly undeweight

negative E balance lowers tolerance during _____

disease or hospitlization

Basal metabolic rate

Resting metabolic rate
breathing, heart beat

factors affecting Basal metabolic rate

Age, body comp, gender, illness

thermic effect of food= diet induced

diet induced

Energy expenditure= ___% BMR and ____% thermic effect of food and ____% exercise induced thermogenesis

70
10
30

non exercise activity thermogenesis means ____ v____ fat

brown v white fat

input and output should be balance to maintain weight T or F

true

lab methods calorimetry

direct: whole room calorimeter
indirect: back pack gas monitor

Method for calorimeter of BMR

1.0 or .9 kcal/kg/hour
and add 45%, 85%

indirect caloimetry= o2______ and CO2______

consumption
expiration

Respiratory quotient

1.0 CHO
.7 Fat

android obesity

apple shaped, more common in males, higher risk metabolic syndrome

gynoid obesity

pear shaped, more common in females, lower risk metabolic syndrome

metabolic(genetic) and behavioral(self control) are two causes of ______

obesity

behavioral causes are primary in _____ obesity

US

the theory that you will return to original weight if gain/lose weight is called _____

set point theory

if excise excess fat, it is /isnt gained back

is
liposuction

if force-overfeed, gained weight is gained/lost

lost

regulatory system monitors____

fat mass and hunger

early overeating increase # of _____

fat cells

Enzyme theory LDL says that______

high LDL -> excess fat accumulation

____ is the protein made by adipocytes

leptin

T or F: obese humans don't respond to leptin administration

true

uncoupling proteins

uncoupling of oxphons from ATP synthesis with energy released as heat

lean humans have high/low UCP

high

external cue theory

obesity/overweight respond to inappropriate environmental cues

hunger is _____ whereas appetite is _____

physiological, psychological

satiety signals to stop ____

eating

increasing incident of overweight and obesity

rapidly; in all age, gender, ethinic, socioeconomic groups

____% of adults in US overweight and _____% obese

50, 75

in children ______% obese

20

storing excess carbon as fat, glycogen is _____state

fed

mobilize glycogen_____ fast

short

mobilize fat________fast

long

____bodies synthesized in liver from fatty acids

ketone

_____ provide CNS with half its energy

ketone bodies

carbs broken down to___

glucose

fat broken down to____

fatty acids

protein broken down to ____

amino acids

long term fast is considered ____days or longer

2-3

_____ allow starvation for 30 days because they are adaptive

ketone bodies

ketone bodies made by___

Fatty acids

weight loss diet should provide____

CHO, protein, incorporate exercise, mobilize tryiglycerides

need enough CHO to block conversion of muscle proteins to____

glucose

insulin drives lipogenesis which ___

blocks glycolysis (won't allow break down of fat)

fasting causes you to lose ______ NOT ______

lose bean body, fat

ketosis develops during ____

fasting

Ketosis development breaks down to_____

glucose

Ketosis leads to rapid weight loss from______

water, not fat

day 3 of fasting is when liver is synthesizing___

ketone bodies from fat

fasting is pitched as a cleansor T or F

true

MAJOR disadvantage of fasting=

Lose body mass

low CHO diets mean high___

fat and protein

benefits of low CHO means

fast initial weight loss

suppresses hunger

ketosis

lipolysis=

fat break down

lose _____if low CHO

LBM

high N excretion from high protein can cause_____

protein problems

best way to lose weight (on diet)

Very low calorie diets

factors of Cambridge diet

500kcal/day
50-100g CHO
mineral/vitamin supplements

______ diet provides overweight people to lose 3-5 pounds a week and 1-3 pounds per week

Cambridge

gastric bypass surgery

only for morbidly obese people
surgical procedures
portion of stomach taken out

does liposuction work?

no, taken from lower half of body and redistributed to upper half of body

Negative E balance

-key to weight loss
-faster weight is lost if more negative balance

most people can reduce calories by_____ and they will be fine and lose weight

1/3

CRON

calorie restriction with optimal nutrition

CRAN

calorie resrtiction with adequate nutrition

Anorexia nervosa

starving self
deranged self image, self denial

bulimia nervosa

binge purging
induced vomiting

sugar, salt and nitries are ____agents

antimicrobial

dietary fat, xs cals, environment all linked to____

Cancer

Free radicals= ______damage

ROS

Zinc causes a high____ disease risk

Cardiovascular

_____indirect vitamins and ____direct vitamins

5,3

are ultra trace minerals essential?

no

____% energy expenditure controlled and ______% energy expenditure related to uncontrollable things

10, 80

most adipose tissue in adults is____in color

white

____ colored adipose tissue acts as heat generation

brown

brown adipose tissue color because=

more mitochondria

anerobic burns____aerobic burns

CHO, fat

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set