AP Human Geography: Agriculture

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If you only learn six things in this chapter.... 1) Much of the world's products are based on the climates of the regions where they are grown. 2) There are 3 Agricultural revolutions that changed history.The First Agricultural Revolution was the transition from hunting and gathering to planting and sustaining. The Second Agricultural Revolution increased the productivity of farming through mechanization and access to market areas due to better transportation. The Third Agricultural Revolut…

agriculture

raising of animals or the growing of crops to obtain food for primary consumption by the farm family or for sale of the farm

before farming

hunting and gathering ; nomadic tribes around the world depended on migratory animals for sustenance.
depended on the existence of wild fruits and berries .
during periods of drought, the supply of fruits and berries was limitied, causing starvation.

First Agricultural Revolution

allowed humans to become more sedentary and avail themselves of a more reliable source of food.
very labor intensive at this point, requiring many people to produce only a small amount of food.
with a more stable food source, the population began to grow, more people needed more food, and growing more food required more labor in self-perpetuating cycles of population growth.
along with this plant domestication came animal domestication.

animal domestication

process of taming wild animals for human benefit.
began to change the diets of people all around the world.
cow,pigs, and chickens where each domesticated in different parts of the would and are staples of our diet

Second Agricultural Revolution

agricultural benefited from the Industrial revolution, causing the Second Agricultural Revolution.
the 2 revolutions occurred from 1700 to 1900 in developed countries.
used technology provided by the Industrial Revolution to increase production and distribution of products.
fields were now doubled or tripled in size but still the same amount of labor.
this increased in productivity and allowed population to increase on both a local and a global scale.
many less developed countries are still in the Second Agricultural Revolution.

Third Agricultural Revolution / Green Revolution

later half of 20th century.
corresponded with the exponential growth occurring around the world, a direct result of the second agricultural revolution and its profound effect on Europe's ability to feed itself.
included biotechnology and genetic engineering.
also involves increase in chemical fertilizers.
mass production of agricultural goods.

subsistence farmers

produce the food that they need to survive on a daily basis. depend on crops they grow and animals they raise for their daily substance. enough food for themselves and families, not intended to be sold in a market.

shifting cultivation

moving of farm fields after several years in search of more productive soil after depleting the nutrients in the original field.
takes place in tropical places, have porous and shallow yet fertile soil. because moisture and precipitation is plentiful, the soil erodes rather quickly.

slash-and-burn agriculture

the clearing of a field, puts nitogen in the field but leaves it useless afterwards.

crop rotation

planting different types of crops each year to replenish the soil with nutrients used up by the previous crop.

pastoral nomadism

moving animals on a seasonal basis to areas that have the resources necessary to meet the needs of the herd.
ex) Sahara Desert in Africa.
Gobi Desert in Mongolia and China

interillage

the use of hoes,rakes, and other manual equipment to clear rows
used because machinery is too expensive for subsitence farmers

commercial farming

farming of products for sale of the farm, usually done in more developed countries, and requires use of machinery

mediterranean agriculture

climate that has a dry summer and cool,most winter
grapes, dates, olives.
California, southern parts of Australia

dairy farming

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