Chapter 6 Electricity (Esthetics)

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Electricity

form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical reactions.

Electric Current

(modality) the flow of electricity along a conductor

Conductor

a material that allows electricity to flow through it

Insulator

a material that does not allow electricity to flow through

Load

term for any electrically powered appliance

Amp

unit of electrical strength

volt

unit of electrical pressure

ohm

unit of electrical resistance

watt

measure of electrical energy being used

electrotherapy

application of electrical currents during treatments to the skin

electrons

tiny, negatively charged particles

direct current

(DC) constant current in which electrons move at an even rate and flow in 1 direction

hertz rating

the number of cycles per secon that a generator alternates current

alternating current

(AC) a rapid oscillating cycle that alternates back and forth.

frequency

the number of times the cycling of an alternating current occurs per second

converter

changes DC to AC

rectifier

changes AC to DC

generator

a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy

amp rating

indicates the number of electrons flowing through a particular line

milliampere

1/1000th of an amp

milliamperemeter

the instrument used to measure the electrical current used in skin care equipment

ohm's rating

the resistance to the motion of the electrons through a conductor

kilowatt

1,000 watts

kilowatt hours

measures the rate at which energy is used

Underwriter's Laboratory

found on the back of an appliance, certifies that appliance has been rated to work safely under written conditions

closed path

(circuit) path is closed, allowing electricity to flow through

open path

path is broken, does not allow electricity to flow

rheostat

indicates the amount of current flowing through the equipment and regulates the amount with a knob or dial

overload

occurs when too many devices are operated on the same circuit at one time. (operation fails)

short circuit

occurs when a conductor comes into contact with a wire carrying current to a load

power box

carefully insulated location where the electric current enters a building from a generator or power plant

fuse

a safety device that prevents electrical wires from overheating. wire inside melts when overload occurs

circuit breaker

safety device that breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs. 2 pieces of metal separate when overloaded

grounding wire

3 wire system, round prong is the grounding prong- connects directly to the ground below building

polarized plug

2 prong plug,

electrical shock

human contact with an electrical current; can be anywhere from mild shock-electrocution

local shock

passes through a small part of the body, cause burns and muscle contraction. may be severe

general shock

(electrocution) passes through the nervous system, causes the heart to stop, breathing to cease and muscle to convulse

GFCI

ground fault circuit interruptor; senses current leakage in an electrical circuit, will interrupt power if there is contact with H20

electrotherapy treatments

facial treatment that requires the use of electricity

galvanic current

(ionization) constant direct current, low voltage, high amperage. Produces an electrochemical effect.

phoresis

the process of forcing a water-based solution into the skin by applying galvanic current

anaphoresis

alkaline solution pushed into the skin by - pole

desincrustation

treatment that breaks down blockages in the skin

cataphoresis

acidic solution is pushed into the skin by + pole

iontophoresis

treatment in which the deeper layers of the epidermis are built up and nourished

poles

charged ends of magnets

polarity

having opposite poles in an electric current

electrodes

negative or positive charged poles that attract or repel particles in treatment solutions

cathode

negatively charged electrode

anode

positively charged electrode

High Frequency

Tesla current, alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat.

Argon

Violet ray (High Frequency)-used on acneic lesion

Neon

Orange ray (High Frequency)-used on normal to oily skin to create warmth for product penetration and increase circulation

Sparking

spark gap, lifting the electrode from the skin to create a more powerful ozone *can cause damage

Direct High Frequency

holds the electrode directly on the face, produces ozone to create germicidal effect

Indirect High Frequency

client holds electrode and esthetician gently massages the face. (Viennese Massage)

Faradic Current

an alternating current that is interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction, passive form of exercise

Direct Faradic

esthetician places both electrodes on the client's skin, passes both electrodes over skin, NEVER touching electrodes together.

Indirect Faradic

esthetician wears a wrist band electrode and client holds second electrode, massage focused mainly on motor points

sinusoidal current

alternating current that produces a mechanical effect, penetrates deeper than faradic. Used on prematurely aging skin

Light Therapy

use of light rays or waves to create a beneficial effect on skin

Electromagnetic radiation

heat energy is transferred by radiation, electrons move in wavelike patterns

wavelength

the measurement of crest to crest in a wavelength
short=more energy long=less energy

electromagnetic spectrum

range of all wavelengths that can be produced by radiant energy

visible light

what humans can see

white light

a combination light, broken down by prism

prism

a 3 sided glass object that breaks white light into individual wavelengths

fluorescent light

long lasting economical light source. creates blue or cool tones

incandescent light

ordinary light bulb, creates red or warm tones

invisible light

range of light not visible to the human eye

infrared rays (IR)

slightly longer wavelength than visible rays, produce heat, penetrate all layers of the skin, affecting muscle, bone, nerves and joints

ultraviolet rays (UV)

slightly shorter wavelength than visible rays, produce - and + effects, healing, Vit D, germicidal, aging, cancer

UVC

little effect on skin

UVB

burning rays, penetrate to lower layers of skin and stimulate melanin

UVA

aging rays, penetrate to dermis destroying collagen and elastin

wax heating unit

heat wax for hair removal

hot towel cabinet

keep towels warm and moist

paraffin heating units

heat parafin wax for use in hand and body treatments

electronic mittens or booties

used to aid penetration of product into hands or feet

electric masque

creates warm moist heat to aid in product penetration on face

microdermabrasion machine

aggressive exfoliation of the epidermis

rotating brush machine

superficially exfoliates the epidermis

electric pulverizer spray

aka Dr. Lucas Spray, atomizes products to be used on skin

spray machine

aids in application of liquid facial products

suction machine

creates a vacuum on the skin to aid in deeper pore cleansing, by drawing dirt, sebum and impurites out

facial steamer

supplies warm vapor to client's skin, aids in cleansing, exfoliating, stimulates sebum production

skin scope

eleaborate magnifying mirror/light that allows client and esthetician to see what is happening under skin. uses a black light

wood's lamp

uses black light and magnification to colorize areas of skin conditions

magnifying lamp

provides light and magnification for better skin analysis

thermal/heating effects

creates heat due to friction

conduction

transfer of heat via direct contact

convection

transfer of heat via liquid or gas

radiation

transfer of heat through a vacuum

electrochemical effects

electrical current travels through a water based solution and onto the body. produces relaxationor stimulating effects.

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