# Chapter 6 Electricity (Esthetics)

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### Electricity

form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical reactions.

### Electric Current

(modality) the flow of electricity along a conductor

### Conductor

a material that allows electricity to flow through it

### Insulator

a material that does not allow electricity to flow through

term for any electrically powered appliance

### Amp

unit of electrical strength

### volt

unit of electrical pressure

### ohm

unit of electrical resistance

### watt

measure of electrical energy being used

### electrotherapy

application of electrical currents during treatments to the skin

### electrons

tiny, negatively charged particles

### direct current

(DC) constant current in which electrons move at an even rate and flow in 1 direction

### hertz rating

the number of cycles per secon that a generator alternates current

### alternating current

(AC) a rapid oscillating cycle that alternates back and forth.

### frequency

the number of times the cycling of an alternating current occurs per second

changes DC to AC

changes AC to DC

### generator

a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy

### amp rating

indicates the number of electrons flowing through a particular line

### milliampere

1/1000th of an amp

### milliamperemeter

the instrument used to measure the electrical current used in skin care equipment

### ohm's rating

the resistance to the motion of the electrons through a conductor

1,000 watts

### kilowatt hours

measures the rate at which energy is used

### Underwriter's Laboratory

found on the back of an appliance, certifies that appliance has been rated to work safely under written conditions

### closed path

(circuit) path is closed, allowing electricity to flow through

### open path

path is broken, does not allow electricity to flow

### rheostat

indicates the amount of current flowing through the equipment and regulates the amount with a knob or dial

occurs when too many devices are operated on the same circuit at one time. (operation fails)

### short circuit

occurs when a conductor comes into contact with a wire carrying current to a load

### power box

carefully insulated location where the electric current enters a building from a generator or power plant

### fuse

a safety device that prevents electrical wires from overheating. wire inside melts when overload occurs

### circuit breaker

safety device that breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs. 2 pieces of metal separate when overloaded

### grounding wire

3 wire system, round prong is the grounding prong- connects directly to the ground below building

2 prong plug,

### electrical shock

human contact with an electrical current; can be anywhere from mild shock-electrocution

### local shock

passes through a small part of the body, cause burns and muscle contraction. may be severe

### general shock

(electrocution) passes through the nervous system, causes the heart to stop, breathing to cease and muscle to convulse

### GFCI

ground fault circuit interruptor; senses current leakage in an electrical circuit, will interrupt power if there is contact with H20

### electrotherapy treatments

facial treatment that requires the use of electricity

### galvanic current

(ionization) constant direct current, low voltage, high amperage. Produces an electrochemical effect.

### phoresis

the process of forcing a water-based solution into the skin by applying galvanic current

### anaphoresis

alkaline solution pushed into the skin by - pole

### desincrustation

treatment that breaks down blockages in the skin

### cataphoresis

acidic solution is pushed into the skin by + pole

### iontophoresis

treatment in which the deeper layers of the epidermis are built up and nourished

### poles

charged ends of magnets

### polarity

having opposite poles in an electric current

### electrodes

negative or positive charged poles that attract or repel particles in treatment solutions

### cathode

negatively charged electrode

### anode

positively charged electrode

### High Frequency

Tesla current, alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat.

### Argon

Violet ray (High Frequency)-used on acneic lesion

### Neon

Orange ray (High Frequency)-used on normal to oily skin to create warmth for product penetration and increase circulation

### Sparking

spark gap, lifting the electrode from the skin to create a more powerful ozone *can cause damage

### Direct High Frequency

holds the electrode directly on the face, produces ozone to create germicidal effect

### Indirect High Frequency

client holds electrode and esthetician gently massages the face. (Viennese Massage)

an alternating current that is interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction, passive form of exercise

esthetician places both electrodes on the client's skin, passes both electrodes over skin, NEVER touching electrodes together.

esthetician wears a wrist band electrode and client holds second electrode, massage focused mainly on motor points

### sinusoidal current

alternating current that produces a mechanical effect, penetrates deeper than faradic. Used on prematurely aging skin

### Light Therapy

use of light rays or waves to create a beneficial effect on skin

heat energy is transferred by radiation, electrons move in wavelike patterns

### wavelength

the measurement of crest to crest in a wavelength
short=more energy long=less energy

### electromagnetic spectrum

range of all wavelengths that can be produced by radiant energy

### visible light

what humans can see

### white light

a combination light, broken down by prism

### prism

a 3 sided glass object that breaks white light into individual wavelengths

### fluorescent light

long lasting economical light source. creates blue or cool tones

### incandescent light

ordinary light bulb, creates red or warm tones

### invisible light

range of light not visible to the human eye

### infrared rays (IR)

slightly longer wavelength than visible rays, produce heat, penetrate all layers of the skin, affecting muscle, bone, nerves and joints

### ultraviolet rays (UV)

slightly shorter wavelength than visible rays, produce - and + effects, healing, Vit D, germicidal, aging, cancer

### UVC

little effect on skin

### UVB

burning rays, penetrate to lower layers of skin and stimulate melanin

### UVA

aging rays, penetrate to dermis destroying collagen and elastin

### wax heating unit

heat wax for hair removal

### hot towel cabinet

keep towels warm and moist

### paraffin heating units

heat parafin wax for use in hand and body treatments

### electronic mittens or booties

used to aid penetration of product into hands or feet

### electric masque

creates warm moist heat to aid in product penetration on face

### microdermabrasion machine

aggressive exfoliation of the epidermis

### rotating brush machine

superficially exfoliates the epidermis

### electric pulverizer spray

aka Dr. Lucas Spray, atomizes products to be used on skin

### spray machine

aids in application of liquid facial products

### suction machine

creates a vacuum on the skin to aid in deeper pore cleansing, by drawing dirt, sebum and impurites out

### facial steamer

supplies warm vapor to client's skin, aids in cleansing, exfoliating, stimulates sebum production

### skin scope

eleaborate magnifying mirror/light that allows client and esthetician to see what is happening under skin. uses a black light

### wood's lamp

uses black light and magnification to colorize areas of skin conditions

### magnifying lamp

provides light and magnification for better skin analysis

### thermal/heating effects

creates heat due to friction

### conduction

transfer of heat via direct contact

### convection

transfer of heat via liquid or gas

transfer of heat through a vacuum

### electrochemical effects

electrical current travels through a water based solution and onto the body. produces relaxationor stimulating effects.

Example: