100 years war
England vs. France. A war over territory-basically, the English trying to hold onto their territory in Northern France, and the French trying to boot them out. France wins. Important because it signaled a beginning of the end of feudal Europe. Knights began to lose prominence on the battlefield.
30 years war
War in Europe. Religious conflicts blow up into a political war on the continent
7 years war
England vs. France. Conflict over colonies. England wins, France pays huge costs-eventually supports the Americans in our revolution for revenge-further hampers French economy.
Four Noble Truths
Part of the Buddhist Doctrine:
1. Suffering is part of life
2. Desire is the result of suffering
3. Freedom from suffering can be achieved by the 8 fold path
4. The 8 fold path leads to nirvana
Ruled during the Tang Dynasty
Defeated the Hittites
Learned how to use iron for weaponry
Cruel Military superpower
City-States known as Polis
The 2 main polises were Athens and Sparta
There were three types of people:
2. Free ppl with no rights
Only adult males could participate in the democracy
Political, commercial, and cultural center
Draco and Solon helped create the democracy
Slaves in Ancient Greece
Slaves weren't treated like complete crap
Slavery actually helped the people create democracy
Agricultural and militaristic
women had more freedom and rights
military training stressed equality but NOT individuality
Collapse of Republic
1st Caesar took over and then Octavius did. The reasons why the republic was failing was because:
1. Too many slaves
2. bad economy
3. leaders fought among themselves
Wars between early Rome and Carthage
Rome won the wars overall
After the Punic Wars Rome began expanding
The General for Carthage was Hannibal
Edict of Milan
Constantine issued the Edict of Milan making Christianity the Empire's religion.
200 years of Roman peace and prosperity
There was a senate and assembly and 2 consuls who ran the place.
Land owning noblemen
Free men who were not slaves, but didn't own land
12 Tables of Rome
The law/code of Rome
Alexander the Great + Hellenism
Hellenism: A combination of Greek and Roman Culture
Alex the Great created Hellenism and started expanding it throughout all of the areas that he was in control of.
Wars between Sparta and Athens. Sparta won but didn't destroy Athens due to respect for Athens.
Why Athens lost the Peloponnesian Wars
Athens lost due to: Plague + weak navy
Golden Age of Pericles
Pericles was a ruler in Athens, who encouraged the spread of culture . Athens became a cultural powerhouse and during this time there was : Homer, Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates.
Occurred after the Persian War
Greek City-States got together and held back (but didn't completely defeat) Persia
During the time period of the Han, Roman, and Gupta.
They had human sacrifice and war for the sole purpose of getting slaves for the human sacrifice.
The government was a bunch of city-states under one king.
Early civilization in the Andes that was completely isolated.
It was not an RVC
Foraging Societies (Hunter-Gatherers)
Hunter-gatherers that were at the mercy of nature.
Women gather. Men hunt.,
These are nomadic people who herd domesticated animals.
Egyptian Social Structure
3. Merchants and Artisans
American isolated civilization in central Mexico.
Mastered: irrigation, calender, writing
WASN'T AN RVC!!!
Chandra Gupta created this Empire.
Collapsed due to huns.
Founded by Chandra Gupta Maurya.
Prosperous due to trade and powerful military
decline due to economic issues
Economy was based on agriculture
good army w/ use of iron
*created the great wall of china*
Extremely centralized and legalist!!
Silk Road trade
Started Civil Service Exams
Huns attempted to invade, but Wu Ti kicked them out.
He was Buddhist, which encouraged the people to convert to Buddhism.
He was the emperor when the Mauryan Empire was at its height.
Didn't happen all at once it is the revolution where people began settling and farming.
Food Surplus = specialization of labor
People start using metallurgy to make Bronze weapons and tools.
Thank you surplus!!
River Valley Civilization
People started first making civilizations on river valley's because they needed the water for farming and the soil was rich for farming.
Examples: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus, China
First big civilization
Between the Tigris and Euphrates
First city in Sub-Saharan Africa
Spread Farming Techniques and language in Africa.
Went from Sub-Sahara to the South and East
had a bureaucracy
started the Mandate of Heaven
Ended due to internal fighting and warfare
Huang He River Valley
Extremely isolated and thought that they were the most awesome thing ever
Extremely advanced cities:
The pass between the Kush mountains where the Indus RVC was able to trade with the Mediterranean for food.
Women in Egypt
1st female ruler- Queen Hatsheput
Women had a higher status in Egypt than in other societies but they were still viewed as lower to men.
Three Kingdoms of Egypt
Old, Middle, and New.
The New was the most prosperous
First monotheistic religion
Created the greek alphabet
Great Royal Road
Persian Road for trading
They developed cuneiform: first form of writing
overran the Akkad.
one of the kings was Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
One of the first law codes
shows the social differences
Took over Babylon.
Created roads for trade and transport (Great Royal Road)
First people to use iron in weaponry
Collapse of Han China
Overthrown by people due to external and internal problems
Collapse of the Gupta Empire
Invaded by the white huns
Collapse of the Roman Empire
Internal: economy, disease, same old same old
The western 1/2 collapsed, but the Eastern 1/2 became the Byzantine Empire
Similarities Between the Inca and Aztec
Both used innovative techniques to dramatically increase agricultural production
Europe wants to compete w/ the USA trade and economy so all of Europe unites together for economic reasons.
Eased trade restrictions
Stopped being protectionist
created the Euro
20th Century Consumerism
It is the biological exchange between the Americas and the rest of the world (Eastern + Western Hemisphere).
Biological: food (potato) disease (bubonic plague) animals (horse)
Czarist Russia explored N. America, Alaska, and Hawaii in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Exported gold to Europe and the Middle East
Roman + Abbassid Decline
Growing reliance on mercenary armies