1st Dynasty. Also known as Menes, the first ruler of Egypt's first dynasty. Unified Upper and Lower Egypt, as depicted on the Narmer Palette. Established the capital of Memphis and built a dam to prevent the flooding of the city.
3rd Dynasty. Builder of the step pyramid (6 stacked mastabas).
4th Dynasty. Builder of the bent pyramid (and also the Red Pyramid and the Pyramid at Meidum). Father of Khufu.
4th Dynasty. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza (First true pyramid).
4th Dynasty. Son of Khufu, may have built the great Sphinx, built a smaller version of the Great Pyramid next to his father's at Giza.
11th Dynasty. Reunited Egypt after the division to three regions. Took many measures to ensure stabilitysuch as making the Nomarchs hereditary (slight concession to gain their support) and ruling with Justice and Forgiveness to gain the support of his people and appear as more of a father-like figure as opposed to a distant God-king (gain support, minimize rebellions.)
12th Dynasty. Former vizier of Mentuhotep IV, gained control mysteriously. Established coregency in order to assume a smooth transition (so that no one could gain power like he had). Tried to claim credit for the re-unification of Egypt. Moved the ceremonial capital to Itjtawy.
12th Dynasty. Son of Amenemhat. Introduced "Instrucions", strengthened the military in order to control Nomarchs and Northern Nubia. Constructed pyramids of mudbrick (crappy and weak). Began Karnak temple, and built canals and oversaw major agricultural expansions.
18th Dynasty. Founder of the 18th Dynasty and New Kingdom, reunified Egypt after the Second Intermediate Period and invasion of the Hyksos. Began Egyptian expansion into Asia.
18th Dynasty. Regent to Thutmose III. Departed from expansion instead focusing on Trade & building. Led the Punt expedition into a region below Egypt, her officers returning with goods such as wood, incense, and cattle. She portrayed herself as a male, yet declared herself the daughter of Amon at her remarkable temple at Deir el-Bahari.
18th Dynasty. Step-son of Hatshepsut. When he finally seized control, he attempted to completely wipe out her memory from anywhere it was engraved or painted. "Napolean of Egypt" - Enlarged Egypt to it's largest sphere of power. Fought the Battle at Megiddo, defeating the Mittani. Took 36 captives of sons of rulers he'd conquered in order to ensure their compliance.
18th Dynasty. "Peace Maker", married a Mittani princess to cement the peace, and focused more on building and administrating his efficient bureaucracy than on imperialism. Built the Temple at Luxor and extended Karnak.
Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV)
18th Dynasty. Amarna. Attempted to convert Egypt to monotheism to the "One true god Aton." Used new religion as an excuse to trash and extract money and goods from traditional temples. Builds a new capital called Amarna. Introduces an entirely new style of art and architecture called Amarna that is suddenly infomral and realistic (See Amarna Card).
18th Dynasty. Akhenaton's favorite wife with a famously preserved tomb and mummy, possibly the most famous Queen of Egypt.
18th Dynasty. Boy-ruler put in power by his vizier Ay. Tried to consolidate Amarna religion with traditional religion by worshiping Aton side-by-side with the traditional gods. Had a short, insignifigant rein, but his tomb was found filled with all of its preserved riches.
18th Dynasty. Overthrew Ay and attempts to erase all memories of Tutankhamon and Akhenaton. Pretends that he's Amehotep III's immediate succesor, restores tradition and imperialism (particularly against the Hittites.)
19th Dynasty. Caputred key port cities, though failed to force Hittites out of Syria. Portrayed himself as a greater military success than he really was, and created a remarkable tomb at the Valley of the Kings.
19th Dynasty. Seti I's son, fought the Battle of Kadesh, made the treaty of Kadesh, engaged in innumerable building projects (Abu Simbel, Ramesseum, Pi-Ramesse, Hypostyle Hall at Karnak as well as Sphinxes, gateways to Luxor temple), and may have been the Pharaoh of Exodus.
20th Dynasty. Successor but not son of Rames III. Spent his rein fighting the Sea People, whom he repelled twice, but lost the third time (Egypt had been weakened). The last ruler of independent Egypt.