460 FINAL

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which of the following statements about autism is true?

all of these choices are true (autism is a spectrum disorder, autism is a developmental disorder, autism is a severe disorder)

with respect to attachment, most children with autism:

prefer their caregivers over unfamiliar adults

what we don't know about the emotional life of children with autism is if they ____ emotions differently

experience

the primary language deficit of children with autism (who develop language) is:

pragmatics

children with autism may engage in self-stimulatory behavior because:

any of these reasons may apply (it is frequently accompanied by some sort of reinforcement, they crave stimulation, the environment may be too stimulating for them)

many children with autism also have:

mental retardation and epilepsy

Which of the following statements about gender differences in autism is true?

autism is more common in boys, except among those with profound mental retardation, where the numbers of boys and girls are similar

____ has been associated with autism more than any other medical condition

tuberous sclerosis

current treatments for child-onset schizophrenia emphasize medications in combination with:

all of these (a psychotherapeutic program, a social support program, an educational support program)

Which of the following statements regarding the general intellect of children with learning disabilities is true?

children with LD's usually have average or above-average intelligence

____ intelligence refers to the ability to use the body and the relevant part of the brain to coordinate movements in special and highly coordinated ways

kinesthetic

phonological awareness is a broad construct that includes:

all of these (awareness that sounds can be manipulated within syllables in words, detection of rhyme and alliteration, recognition of the relationship between sounds and letters)

phonological disorder is diagnosed when a child:

has trouble with articulation

Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in rate of communication disorders is true?

boys are more likely to be diagnosed with communication disorders, due to referral bias

the age at which stuttering 'peaks' is:

5 years

which of the following is not a category of learning disorders?

motor skills

which of the following would a child with a writing disorder least likely have difficulty with?

gross motor skills (others they would probably have troubles with: eye/hand coordination, handwriting, reading)

Heritability accounts for approximately _____ of the variance in reading disorders.

60%

Eden et al (1996) found that the brains of adults with reading disorders show no activation in an area that detects:

visual motion

Up until the age of ____, children spend more time asleep than awake

5 years

Which of the following statements about sleep problems is NOT true?

infants and toddlers have less night-waking problems (these are TRUE: preschoolers have more falling-asleep problems, younger school-age children have more going-to-bed problems)

nightmares usually occur:

during the last half of the sleep cycle

behavioral intervention for sleeping problems involves:

all of these (sleep hygiene, comfort and reassurance, positive reinforcement)

Which of the following statements about encopresis is NOT true?

encopresis usually results from psychological disturbance (TRUE: encopresis is more common in boys than girls, may be associated with abnormal defecation dynamics, up to 3% of children are estimated to have this disorder)

Which of the following statements best describes children's experience and expression of pain?

children and adults experience pain similarly

research suggests that children cope best with painful medical procedures when:

the procedure is explained first

Which of the following parental behaviors would help a child cope most effectively with a painful medical procedure?

distracting

which of the following statements regarding the course of adolescent substance abuse disorders (SUDs) is NOT true?

rates of substance abuse increase in early adulthood (TRUE: experimentation with substances is common among teenagers, rates of substance abuse peak around adolescence)

Which of the following is NOT likely to increase the risk of substance abuse?

high parental expectations for abstaining from alcohol (IS likely to increase the risk: inconsistent parenting and poor monitoring, lack of parental involvement)

eating disorders are the ___ most common illness in adolescent females

third

pica is often seen in individuals with:

mental retardation

mothers of infants with failure to thrive (when a child fails to gain body weight) have been found to be ____ than mothers of infants without failure to thrive

more insecure with respect to attachment

obesity _____ is strongly related to obesity in _____

in childhood; adulthood

For some teens, particularly girls, excessive efforts to control eating may be misguided effort to:

manage the stress and physical changes that confront them as they pass into adolescence

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of anorexia?

loss of appetite (IS a characteristic: fear of gaining weight, denial of being too thin, refusal to maintain minimal normal body weight)

young women who have dietary-depressive subtype of bulimia differ from women with only the dietary subtype, as those with the dietary-depressive subtype display:

more social impairment

which of the following statements about gender differences in relation to eating disorders is FALSE?

men show more of a preoccupation with food than women (TRUE: men show less of a drive for thinness than women, young men with eating disorders generally show the same clinical features as young women, men place more emphasis on athletic appearance or attractiveness than women)

Which of the following is NOT a predictor of full-recovery for individuals with bulimia?

older age at onset (IS a predictor: higher social class, family history of alcohol abuse)

which of the following is LEAST likely to characterize an adolescent with anorexia?

lack of emotional restraint (IS likely to characterize: high need for approval, rigidity and obsessiveness, preference for the familiar)

Which of the following is unrelated to the occurrence of maltreatment?

all of these are unrelated (religious faith of the parent, sexual orientation of the parent, national origin of the parent)

many of the acute symptoms of sexual abuse resemble children's common reactions to:

stress

the most common form of child maltreatment is:

neglect

younger children are the most common victims of:

neglect

Children from _____ families are at significantly greater risk for both physical abuse and neglect

all of these choices (single-parent, large, poor)

____ involves the degree to which the child feels their confidence was gained through manipulation and coercion, as well a the position of trust or authority held by the perpetrator

betrayal

neglected children tend to have peer relationships marked by:

avoidance and withdrawal

while adaptive in abusive and inescapable situations, dissociation may lead to:

borderline personality disorder

Which of the following is not a characteristic of parents who maltreat their children?

all of these are characteristics of maltreating parents (information-processing disturbances, unfamiliarity of the parenting role, unfamiliarity of developmentally appropriate expectations for children)

once environmental and adult factors are controlled, the only child characteristic that has been associated with the risk of sexual abuse is:

gender

define dissociation:

an altered state of consciousness in which the individual feels detached from the body or self. this process may be voluntary or involuntary, and can be adaptive when resistance or escape from a life threatening situation is not possible

_____ children with autism do not develop any useful language

the majority of

the two strongest predictors of adult outcomes in children with autism are:

IQ and language development

a step-by-step approach to presenting a stimulus and requiring a specific response that is used in the treatment of autism is called:

discrete trial training

Which of the following about Retts disorder is false:

in comparison to kids with autism, children with Retts don't have language impairment (this is FALSE)

which of the following about child-onset schizophrenia is FALSE?

it typically has a sudden onset (this is FALSE)

the most common co-morbid disorders in children with schizophrenia are:

behavior disorders and depression

schizophrenia is extremely rare prior to:

adolescence

dyslexia refers to:

reading problems (NOT problems mixing up the letters)

studies comparing language impaired children with and without a positive family history for a language-based learning disability suggest that children with a positive family history may inherit:

temporal processing deficits

main cause of reading disorders can be attributed to:

genetics

which of the following about the causes of stuttering is true?

NONE of the above

decoding can be described as:

breaking a word into parts rapidly enough to read the whole word

language (reading, writing) is to the _________ as math is to the _______

left hemisphere, right hemisphere

evidence of mathematics disorder typically emerges:

well before entry into school (deficits in spatial reasoning skills, i.e. drawing shapes, building things with blocks)

_____ of children diagnosed with reading disorder in elementary school still have major reading problems in high school

75%

a nonverbal learning disorder is a deficit related to:

abnormalities in the RIGHT hemisphere (language = left)

Which of the following is NOT true about enuresis?

nocturnal enuresis cannot exist in combination with daytime (diurnal) enuresis

to keep individuals from urinating at night, anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) serves to:

concentrate the urine during sleep hours

full spectrum home training for enuresis is a combination of _____

dry-bed training and a urine alarm

the most effective and long lasting treatment for enuresis is:

the urine alarm

children and adolescents with insulin-dependent mellitus (diabetes) must monitor their INSULIN levels closely because too little insulin can result in ____ and too much insulin can result in _____

diabetic coma (high blood sugar, low insulin), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar, high insulin)

a nonspecific risk factor for substance use is:

school connectedness

According to the Ontario Child Health Study and the US National Health Survey:

the presence of a physical disability increases the risk a child with a chronic illness has of developing a psychiatric disorder

the most common chronic illness in childhood =

asthma

about ____ of kids suffer from some form of chronic health problem

10-20%

Leo Kanner viewed the core feature of early infantile autism as the

absence of social interactions

though similar in their concerns about eating and gaining weight, individuals with bulimia differ from individuals with anorexia in that they ___ while those with anorexia are not.

are within 10% of their normal weight

the most common compensatory behavior among community samples of individuals who fit the criteria for bulimia but who have NOT sought help is:

exercise

DSMIV's age criteria for autism

symptoms must be present before age 3

most parents will notice their child has autism by age ___

2

the autism prevalence rate:

1 in 150

in the early 1900's, children with enuresis were considered:

emotionally and behaviorally disturbed

define joint social attention

the ability to coordinate one's focus of attention on another person and an object of mutual interest

children with schizophrenia will NOT have _____ while children with autism will

language impairment

the current view of the causes of childhood schizophrenia include:

"stress model" - an interplay of biological vulnerability, stress, and protective factors

the tendency to focus on one feature of an object while ignoring other equally important features is called:

overselectivity (occurs in children with autism - "tunnel vision")

children with mathematics disorders have problems with:

visuospatial abilities

_____ is highly related to expressive language development

phonological awareness

What is the core deficit for reading disabilities?

phonological awareness

What is the only sleep disorder treated with medication?

narcolepsy

almost 80% of children who stutter before age ____ will stop stuttering when they enter school

5

a child with a learning disability would typically score ________ on an IQ test than a test of _____

higher; academic achievement

in reaction to a sexually abusive incident, it is common to

regress temporarily to an earlier stage of development

women outnumber men as perpetrators of:

neglect (90% of neglect is done by the mother)

children with histories of _____ have the most severe and wide ranging problems in school and interpersonal adjustment

neglect

the attachment pattern typically shown by children who are abused is:

insecure-disorganized

physically abused children tend to have peer relationships marked by:

aggression

a history of _____ among males is a significant factor for inappropriate sexual behaviors, alienation and social incompetence in adolescence

ANY form of maltreatment

which of the following regarding the relationship between childhood maltreatment and later violent delinquent behavior is true?

children who experience routine violence in childhood are significantly more likely to engage in violent delinquent behavior later on

boys are more likely to be sexually abused by:

male, non-family members (someone they know and trust)

girls are more likely to be sexually abused by:

male, family members (someone they know and trust)

the UCLA Young autism project attempts to modify children's symptoms by:

using behavior modification such as rewarding and shaping

why is early intervention so important for children with autism?

neural plasticity!

children who have been sexually abused are more likely to develop PTSD symptoms if:

the abuse was chronic and coercive

echolalia in children with autism is believed to be:

an important step in their language acquisition

define echolalia

a child's immediate or delayed parrot-like repetition of words or word combinations

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