Andesite was named for a rock type commonly found:
Igneous processes are those which relate to:
melting of rocks, formation and solidification of magma.
The geothermal gradient of the asthenosphere is:
less than that of the lithosphere.
Volcanic rocks are ALL:
Igneous rocks that form entirely beneath Earth's surface are said to be:
A rock with mineral crystals too small to be seen and low temperature minerals is:
Andesite and diorite:
formed from magma with the same silica content, formed from magma with the same temp. and contain the same minerals
The two important criteria used for igneous rock classification are:
texture and mineral composition.
Bowen's Reaction Series illustrates relations between:
temperature, chemical composition, and mineral structure.
You discover a rock with minerals large enough to be seen containing potassium feldspar, muscovite, and quartz. This is:
Basalt is most often associated with what type of plate boundary
divergent plate boundaries
An example of a hot spot where a hot mantle plume is currently lying at a shallow depth beneath the continental crust is:
Yellowstone National Park.
The difference in minerals among plutonic rocks is caused by:
different chemical compositions, different crystallization temperatures and magmatic differentiation.
Mineral part of Bowen's Discontinuous Series?
Minerals part of Bowen's Continuous Series?
Fragments of country rock that are distinct from the body of igneous rocks in which they are enclosed
By definition, stocks differ from batholiths in
Not a fine-grained rock type?
The major difference between volcanic and plutonic igneous rocks is:
where they solidify
A surface separating different types of rocks is called:
"Geological processes operating at the present time are the same
processes that have operated in the past" is a statement of:
he Principle of Uniformitarianism.
If rock A cross-cuts rock B, then rock A is:
younger than rock B.
What is a method of correlation?
matching similar fossil assemblages,
tracing rocks with physical continuity and
tracing similar rock types
Eras of the Standard Geologic Time Scale are subdivided into:
Which subdivision of geologic time is the longest?
not used in radioactive dating
Radiocarbon dating is a useful technique for what samples
Radon is a gas derived from the natural radioactive decay of:
Concentrations of radon are highest in areas where the bedrock is:
An unconformity that has tilted sedimentary layers beneath it and
horizontal sedimentary layers above is called a(an) ______.
A geologist could use the Principle of Inclusions to determine the relative
A contact between parallel sedimentary rock layers that records
missing geologic time is:
The fossils of multicellular life forms observed in rocks:
can be used to correlate the rock layers.
Geologists are reasonably convinced that Earth:
is 4.5 - 4.6 billion years old.
Methods used by geologists to determine the general sequence of
geologic events from oldest to youngest are known as:
Undisturbed sedimentary rock layers occur in horizontal layers. This is:
because the rocks were originally deposited flat in water and is called the Principle of Original Horizontality.
The principle of ______ states that within an undisturbed sequence of
sedimentary or volcanic layers, the oldest layer is on the bottom.
James Hutton was:
considered the father of geology
among the great early thinkers of geology.
We live in the ______ Epoch.
an enrichment of uranium at Earth's surface,
bombardment of the earth by cosmic rays,
extreme heat deep within the Earth
Will not affect the half-life of a radioactive element
Physical disintegration of rocks into smaller pieces is called:
The decomposition of rock from exposure to water and atmospheric gases is known a
A mechanical weathering process caused by pressure release (or unloading) is:
Where do sediments come from?
Rock weathering produces sediment.
In which environment is frost wedging likely to be prevalent?
Hydrolysis occurs when:
feldspars are chemically altered to clays
types of chemical weathering
frost wedging, unloading, root wedging
Exfoliation is a natural process which results from:
unloading of deeply buried rocks
The common end product of the chemical weathering of feldspar is:
Soil with approximately equal proportions of sand, silt, and clay along with generous amounts of organic matter is called:
characteristic of soil horizons?
Boundaries between soil horizons are usually transitional rather than sharp, they are classified by assigned letters and they can be distinguished from one another by appearance and chemical composition
Which soil forms in arid climates, with little organic material? It usually includes hardpans of salt, gypsum or calcite?
The soil horizon rich in clay is the:
Tropical soils are typically:
deeply leached and infertile
The single most effective agent of chemical weathering at the Earth's surface is:
When feldspar weathers, it turns to:
Which of the following minerals would weather away the fastest at the Earth's surface: diamond, olivine and quartz
Where do aluminum cans come from?
What is the parent material of all soils?
Silt is a product of
The major source of energy for the United States is:
The total quantity of a material discovered or undiscovered is called:
Economically recoverable amounts of geological materials are called:
not a type of coal?
Which metal would most likely be found in an ore deposit formed by crystal settling in a magma chamber?
The United States has the largest reserves in the world of this fuel:
The main use of lead is in
Increase reserves of various geologic materials?
new discoveries of economical deposits, favorable economics and improved extraction technology
The largest use of sand and gravel is:
Phosphate is mined primarily for:
Reserves of many geological materials can be extended by:
conserving use of materials, substituting other materials that accomplish the same thing, and recycling materials.
agricultural products, solar energy and water resources
Nuclear power presently provides what portion of U.S. energy needs?
solar power, hydroelectric power, and wind power
Viable alternative energy sources
Portion of the energy needs of France comes from nuclear power?
Recycling of copper provides____of the United States current needs:
How much of the world's energy is consumed in the United States?
Energy can be realistically conserved by:
supplementing with renewable alternative energy systems.
The ratio of the amount of energy extracted versus the amount of energy put into the extraction process of a resource can be initialized as:
The path a water particle makes as a wave passes in deep water is not
linear, elliptical, or spherical.
Most waves on the ocean are generated by:
The distance from the crest of a wave to the next crest is:
The narrow currents that flow straight out to sea in the surf zone is called:
Beach sediment is typically quartz-rich sand because:
quartz is a durable mineral that resists chemical weathering
The movement of sediment parallel to shore when waves strike at an angle is called:
structures that can disrupt longshore drift
jetties, breakwaters and seawalls.
the most common source of sand on beaches?
sand transported to the beach by rivers
landforms expected to be found on erosional coasts?
sea stacks, sea cliffs, and rocky headlands
deltas, bay mouth bars, and spits
characterizes a depositional coast
A glacial valley drowned by rising sea-level is called:
low atmospheric pressure, causing sea-level to bulge under the storm, the movement of the hurricane onto a shoreline, and high winds driving large waves ashore.
Causes of the storm surge of a hurricane
When waves approach a coast at an angle over a sloping seafloor, they:
In shallow water, waves break because:
they slow down and become so steep that the crest topples over
The maximum depth of influence of waves beneath the surface is:
one-half of their wavelength
As waves move into shallow water, the motion of water particles becomes:
the duration of winds blowing over water, the speed of winds blowing over water, and the distance that wind blows over water.The size of waves is related to:
What the size of waves is related to
helps protect onshore structures behind the seawall, costs a lot of money for maintenance over the long term, and accelerates coastal erosion.
Construction of seawalls often:
Due to construction of seawalls
Marine terraces are landforms associated with:
does NOT refer to a coastal landform?
has occurred in North America, Europe and Africa and exists where a large part of a continent is covered by glacial ice sheets
At present, what percentage of Earth's land surface is covered by glaciers?
ice cap, ice sheet and valley glacier
type of glaciers
The boundary between the zone of ablation and the zone of accumulation is called:
the equilibrium line.
The ice caps on Mars are composed mostly of:
carbon dioxide (dry ice).
Recently, geologist have been drilling ice sheets for clues about:
past climates on Earth.
Glacially eroded valleys are typically:
recessional moraine, lateral moraine, and ground moraine
types of moraine
The last episode of widespread continental glaciation in North America was at its peak:
about 18,000 years ago
gravity, basal slip and because ice behaves as a plastic solid
Why Alpine glaciers flow downhill
continental glaciers, volcanic ash, and wind-blown silt did not cover
Nevada, Utah, and eastern California during the last Ice Age.
Crevasses form in the surface of glaciers because:
the near-surface ice behaves as a brittle solid.
water precipitated from the atmosphere as snow, snow that recrystallizes to form ice and water evaporated from the ocean
What ice that forms continental glaciers originates as
capable of significant erosion, significant modification of landscapes and significant deposition.
cause significant changes in global sea level, deform continents due to their mass and may have very large lakes at their terminus.
Today, glaciers worldwide are:
If all ice sheets were to melt, sea level would rise by over:
Can be kilometers thick
The Theory of Glacial Ages was first articulated in:
The 19th Century
defining characteristic of a desert
rainfall less than 25 cm per year.
flash floods, slow chemical weathering and internal drainage
feature of desert regions
The primary difference between a mesa and a butte is one of:
The dry region downwind of a mountain range is known as:
a rain shadow zone
A very flat surface underlain by a dry lake bed of hard, mud-cracked clay is called a:
Rocks with flat, wind-abraded surfaces are called:
The erosion of sand, silt, and clay from the land surface by wind is called:
type of sand dune
Transverse, Barchan and Parabolic
A broad ramp of sediment formed of coalesced alluvial fans isa:
A surface layer of closely packed pebbles found in desert areas is:
salt tolerant, adapted to low moisture levels in the air and often have small leaves with waxy coatings.
Plants living in desert regions
Deserts centered on 30 degrees north and south latitude owe their origins to:
the global air circulation pattern
Flash floods in desert regions are primarily caused by:
high run-off associated with short but intense rainfall.
Flash floods in desert areas:
are more common than in humid areas.
narrow, steep-sided stream valleys in desert regions.
A sand dune that is convex in the downwind direction is:
a parabolic dune
Sand dunes have been observed on:
Deposits of windblown silt and clay are called:
Most dunes move
10-15 meters per year
In the United States, Death Valley is a desert because:
it is in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
Mt. St. Helens:
overlies a subduction zone.
Volcanic eruptions cannot affect climate because:
they are tall mountain peaks, they recycle water vapor to make clouds and they heat the atmosphere.
Magma extruded at low temperatures tends to be:
Magma with a low silica content tends to be:
Magma with a large amount of dissolved gases tends to be:
the reason volcanoes form, the source of all igneous rocks and melted rock.
affects the viscosity of magma
amount of gases, silica content and temperature
not a common gas in magma
The asthenosphere is:
the source of most magma
Submarine eruptions of volcanoes:
form pillow basals
Yellowstone, Wyoming (640,000 years ago).
typical example of a shield volcano that is also the largest on Earth
type of volcano is not commonly composed of andesite and most common type of volcano in the "Ring of Fire"
An igneous rock made of pyroclasts has a texture called
Crater Lake in Oregon is an example of
Mafic igneous rocks contain:
about 50% silica
Obsidian is an igneous rock that
solidified very rapidly to form glass
planet is not known to have volcanoes