Biology 411 Exam 3

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Questions from the third exam of Biology 411.

Diversity

Sexual reproduction is significant in increasing genetic _____.

C. Associated G protetins become activve by exchanging GTP for GDP

Which of following statements about G proteins associated with G-protein-coupled receptors is false?:
A. G proteins provide a link between the receptor and effector protein.
B. G proteins are heterotrimeric.
C. Associated G proteins become active by exchanging GTP for GDP.
D. Activated G protein diffuses away from the receptor.

Metaphase

The chromosomes line up at the equator of the spindle during _____.

D. Fallopian tube

During embryonic sex determination, all of the following are part of the Wollfian duct system and become the male accessory organs except the:
A. epididymis.
B. vas deferens.
C. prostate gland.
D. Fallopian tube.
E. seminal vesicles.

Photons

Light consists of units of energy called _____.

Proteins that are tightly bound to the double strands of DNA

A scientist wants to study histones. Histones are _____.

C. MAP kinase kinase kinase

Which of the following proteins phosphorylates MAP kinase kinase?:
A. MAP kinase
B. MAP kinase kinase
C. MAP kinase kinase kinase
D. MAP phosphatase

PT, Pt, pT, pt

Let P = purple flowers and p = white, and T = tall plants and t = dwarf. What combinations of gametes could be produced by a heterozygote for both the traits?

Paracrine

Adjacent cells can signal others by direct contact, while nearby cells that are not touching can communicate by the release of __________ signals.

p53

Normally, _____ functions in the cell to stop cell division if the cell has experienced extensive DNA damage.

B. Mitosis

Which of the following produces identical cells?:
A. meiosis
B. mitosis
C. gamete formation
D. syngamy
E. fertilization

Phosphorylation

Enzymatic receptors typically activate intracellular proteins by ___________.

Phenotype

The ________ of an organism is the physical appearance resulting from the expression of the genes present.

Mitosis is nuclear division, which lead to diploid somatic cells. Meiosis is nuclear division, which leads to haploid gametes.

Meiosis and mitosis are both processes that involve nuclear division. What is the difference between the two?

Cycle

Most eukaryotic cells go through a repeating process of growth and division referred to as the cell _____.

46

In the human, the somatic cells (non-sex cells) contain two sets of chromosomes totaling _____.

A. Water

Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosynthesis. From which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived?:
A. Water
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Glucose
D. Chlorophyll

E. Heterozygous purple pea plant and heterozygous purple pea plant

When Mendel crossed two purple-flowered pea plants with each other, he obtained a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 (purple-flowered pea plants to white-flowered pea plants). His results are consistent with which of the following sets of parents?:
A. homozygous dominant purple pea plant and homozygous recessive white pea plant
B. homozygous dominant purple pea plant and heterozygous white pea plant
C. heterozygous purple pea plant and homozygous recessive white pea plant
D. heterozygous purple pea plant and homozygous dominant purple pea plant
E. heterozygous purple pea plant and heterozygous purple pea plant

Carbon fixation

Carbon atoms of CO2 are incorporated into organic molecules in a series of dark reactions called _____.

Red-Violet

The wavelengths of light that chlorophyll most readily absorbs are _____.

NADPH

The Calvin cycle is driven by ATP and _____ produced in the light reactions.

A. G1 + G2 + S

Which one of the following represents interphase?:
A. G1 + G2 + S
B. S + M + C
C. prophase + metaphase + anaphase + telophase
D. cytokinesis + mitosis
E. G0 + G1 + G2

B. Crossing over takes place between sister chromatids

Which of the following statements about crossing over is false?:
A. Crossing over takes place between non-sister chromatids.
B. Crossing over takes place between sister chromatids.
C. Sites of crossing over are called chiasmata.
D. All of the above statements are true

Alleles

Alternate forms of the same gene are called _____.

Segregation

Mendels' Law of ________ states that alternative alleles for a trait separate from one another during gamete formation and remain distinct.

C. Phospholipase C

Which of the following components is not part of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) second messenger pathway?:
A. Adenylyl cyclase
B. A transmembrane receptor
C. Phospholipase C
D. A G protein

The Calvin Cycle

Carbon fixation occurs during the dark reactions, or ____________, in photosynthesis.

D. Cytoplasmic receptors

Which of the following is not a type of cell surface receptor?
A. Chemically gated ion channels
B. G-protein coupled receptors
C. Growth factor receptors
D. Cytoplasmic receptors (e.g., steroid receptors)

Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases

The proteins that participate in the functioning of the checkpoints for cell cycle control are _____.

Heterozygous

When the two haploid gametes contain two different alleles of a given gene, the resulting offspring is called _____.

Type O

A person who has lost a large amount of blood but is still alive is found in a wrecked automobile under a highway bridge. Several people are helping the paramedics load the victim into the ambulance. After the ambulance has departed for the hospital, you overhear the following conversation from the persons who helped the paramedics. "I am certain that when that guy gets to the hospital, they will transfuse him with any blood that they have in the blood bank since he has lost so much blood." The other person says, "Yeah, I bet you're right!" Having had a biology course, you know which blood could be safely given to anyone. What is it?

Gonoctyes

In animals, the cells that will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development. These are _____.

Crossing Over

Chromosomes exchange genetic information by _____.

0%

While dissecting a cat in anatomy class, you tease out some muscle tissue, stain it, and look at it under a light microscope. What percentage of the muscle cells would you expect to be in M phase of the cell cycle at any given time?

XY

The genotype of the "Guevodoces" is _____.

D. Rb and p53

You have been asked to provide genetic counseling to a family who has a very high incidence of various types of cancer. After some discussion, you tell them that you will do some genetic testing to determine if they carry any mutations that predispose them to cancer. Mutations in which of following proteins are most commonly associated with cancers?:
A. Ras and p53
B. Ras and Scr
C. Scr and Rb
D. Rb and p53

Interphase

_________ is the portion of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscope because they are not yet condensed.

Stroma

In which part of the chloroplasts are the Calvin cycle enzymes located?

E. Phospholipase C

Which of the following is not considered to be a second messenger?:
A. cAMP
B. Ca++ ions
C. diacyl glycerol (DAG)
D. inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)
E. phospholipase C

E. Epididymis

During embryonic sex determination, all of the following are part of the Mullerian duct system and become part of the female reproductive tract except:
A. Fallopian tubes
B. vagina
C. uterus
D. cervix
E. epididymis

E. cAMP, calcium ions

Which pair are examples of second messengers?:
A. sodium, potassium ions
B. amino acids, proteins
C. steroids, lipids
D. sugars, starches
E. cAMP, calcium ions

Homozygous

A diploid organism that has two identical alleles for the same trait is called _______ for that particular trait.

Anaphase

The stage of mitosis characterized by the initial, physical separation of sister chromatids is called _________.

Fission

Bacteria divide by binary ______, in which the cell divides into two nearly equal halves.

D. Establish a pedigree

You can use a Punnet square to do all of the following except:
A. determine gametic possibilities.
B. predict phenotypic ratio.
C. determine genotypic ratio.
D. establish a pedigree.

Mendel

The first detailed and quantitative studies on inheritance were carried out by an Austrian monk named _____.

Photosystems

Clusters of chlorophyll and accessory pigments are called ________.

B. The homologous chromosomes have all been copied though DNA replication and are now sister chromatids.

In humans the diploid number of chromosomes is 46. The haploid number is 23. Prior to mitosis in the cell cycle, the cell is in the G2 phase. Which of the statements is true?
A. The homologous chromosomes are lined up on the equator.
B. The homologous chromosomes have all been copied through DNA replication and are now sister chromatids.
C. The homologous chromosomes have been pulled to their respective poles by the spindle apparatus.
D. The homologous chromosomes have not been replicated yet.
E. The homologous chromosomes are now in the haploid or n condition.

Cyclins

The progress of mitosis is regulated by ______ and their dependent kinases.

14

You are studying meiosis in an organism that has 28 chromosomes as its diploid number. How many chromosomes will each nucleus have after meiosis I, but before cytokinesis?

Synapsis

The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths which is essential for crossing over is referred to _____.

Pea

Mendel used the garden ___ plant for his studies on inheritance.

Photosynthesis

__________ is the process by which certain organisms capture energy from sunlight and use it to build energy-rich food molecules.

B. G1 to S to G2 to M to C

Which of the following sequence of cell-cycle phases is characteristic of eukaryotes?
A. G to S to M
B. G1 to S to G2 to M to C
C. S to M to C
D. G1 to G2 to S to C
E. G1 to G2 to G3 to S to C

Prophase I

Crossing over of chromosomes takes place in _____.

D. Mitosis

Sexual reproduction increases genetic variability through all of the following except
A. crossing over in prophase I of meiosis.
B. independent assortment in meiosis.
C. fertilization.
D. mitosis.

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