African American Theatre

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Final Exam Study

BLACKARTSOUTH

Federal Southern Theatre, it was a workshop for writers and actors intended to try to develop new material for the theatre

The African Company

this theatre was putting on plays in a downtown Manhattan theatre 40 years before Lincoln ended slavery

Bourgeoisie Nationalism

efers to the alleged practice by the ruling classes of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, so as to distract them from possible class warfare. It is seen as a divide and conquer strategy used by the ruling classes to prevent the working class from uniting against them

What Acronym did A.N.T. stand for?

- African Negro Theatre
-'ant' because all of its members were to work like ants and be really hard workers

New Orleans

Where did the Free Southern Theatre settle in 1965?

Lafayette Players

Ira Aldridge, Paul Robeson, Charles Gilpin, Anita Bush, Eugene Elmer, Lester Walton

Urban Arts Core

this theatre wanted to promote blacks to be liberators, artistic and expressive as opposed to typical acting model that is seen in the white theatre

Anita Bush

director of the Lafayette Players
-dancer, actres, theatrical administrator
-formed the _________(her name) Players of Harlem, the first professional Black dramatic non-musical theatre ensemble in the US
-co-star of "The Crimson Skul" (1921) (1st all black Western)

Diana Sands

played Beneatha with Portier

Ed Bullins

wrote "The Electronic ******" and was a part of the New Lafayette Theatre (founded by MacBeth)

James Hewlitt

acted in Shakesperian plays, member of the African Company

Lloyd Richards

directed1959 "Native Son"

Paul Robeson

-think "Ethnic Notions"
-played Emporer Jones by Eugene O'Neal
-first black to play Shakespear's Othello on Broadway
-believed in communism

Rose McClendon

-Co-founder of the "Negro People's Theatre" in Harlem

The African Company

-first know black theatre company
-William Henry Brown and James Hewlitt were it's founders
-multicultural theatre

The Lafayette Players

-first professional black dramatc company in America
-Aim: "to give vent to our talent and to prove to everybody who was willing to look, to watch, to listenb, that we were as good at drama as anybody else."
-first stage appearence: Lincoln Theatre in Harlem in 1915

New Lafayette Theatre

founded by Robert MacBeth

Federal Theatre Project

-1935-39
-part of the economic recovery program (New Deal), set up in 23 cities
-provided employment, training, apprenticeship, and experience to 100s of black actors, directors, theatre technicians, and playwrights
-objective: racial justice
-random scating allowed for integration, conditioned audiences to be receptive

American Negro theatre

-founded by Abram Hill and Frederick O'Neal in 1940
-took the place of the Federal Theatre Project; both founders were involved in FTB
-actors were required to work hard like "ants"

Negro Ensemble Company

-founded in 1967 by Robert Hooks, Douglas Turner Ward, and Gerald Krone
-criticisms: Negro in title, white founder, white funding, white playwrights

National Black Theatre

-founded in 1968
-theatre as a space to discover, explore, nurture, articulate,adress and help thoose of African decent born in America
-paticipants fully able to express UNITY(Umoja), RESPECT(), and culturla values of SLEF-LOVE

Free Southern Theatre

-founded by Gil Moses
-aim: to stimulate creative and reflective thought among Negroes in MISSISSIPPI and other southern states

Urban Arts Corps

-founded by Vinnette Carroll in 1967 to foster participation by minority groups in all aspects of the theatrical arts, specialized in works of African American writers and composers

Vinnette Carrol

She was the founder of Urban Arts Corps and the first woman director on Broadway with her staging of "Don't Bother me, I Can't Cope"

Black Arts Repertory

-theatre created by Amiri Baraka, which sought to create a strong "black aesthetic" in Americana Theatre, revolutionary black theatre

African Company

James Hewlitt, William Henry Brown

Lafayette Players

Anita Bush

Federal Theatre Project

Halli Flannigan

American Negro Theatre

Frederick O'Neal, Abram Hill

NEW Lafayette Blayers

Robert MacBeth

National Black Theatre

Barbara Ann Teer

Negro Ensemble

Douglas Turner Ward, Gerald Krone, and Robert Hooks

Urban Arts Core

Vinnette Carroll

Free Southern Theatre

Gil Moses

Blakc Arts Repertory

Amiri Baraka

Ward's intention for NEC

challenged the bourgeois parochialism of American theatre, questioning the very limited definition of the community served by the theatre, and cited the need for the creation of an autonomous professional Black theatre

Tenemos

-Magic circle is drawn around a culture, and literature develops historically within a limited orbit of language, reference, allusion, beliefs, transmitted and shared traditions
-fits with Umoja (unity)

Ma Rainey's Black Bottom

only one of August Wilson's plays that does not take place in Pittsburg
-1920's play

King Hedly II

- in this play written by Wilson the characters from the previous play (Seven Guitars (70's)) reappear

Cultural Nationalism

founded on the belief that blacks and whites have separate values, histories, intellectual traditions and lifestyles and therefore that in reality there are two separate Americas
-conceptual or aesthetic return to Africa in recognition of the African roots
-aim: to realize the black community as one common descendent
-Ron Karenga
-Larry Neal
-Harold Cruse (the negro can not identifiy with America w/o defined cultural identity)

Bourgeoisie Nationalism

Baraka called out people who made "skin flicks"
-refers to the practice of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, to distract people from class welfare; devide and conquer strategy

Black nationism

Grover Cleveland Redding
Marcus Garvey
Noble Drew Ali (blacks of Morish decent)

Nationalism

strong indetification of a group of individuals w/ a political entity defined in national terms

Non-traditional casting

-Color Blind (no reference to race)
-Conceptual (consciously makes a statement by casting an actor in a role they haven't traditionaly played)
-Societal (casting ethnic roles reflecting the way they participate in society)
-Cross-cultural (entire world of the play is shifted and transplanted into another culture)

August Wilson

wrote "The Ground on which I Stand"
-he was anti color-blind casting

Race Man

people who were dedicated to uplifting the race, working for the community

Ujima

Collective Work

Nguzo Saba

Faith(Imani), Unity(Umoja), Self-Determination(Kujichagalia), Cooperative Economics(Ujamaa), Creativity(Kuumba), and Collective Work(Ujima), Purpose-building and developing community(NIa)

Mammy

fat, pitch-black, obedient, singing, docile, protective of the white family, used as a defence of slavery, never evoked sexual attention so she wouldn't becoma a threat to slavery, portrayed as dominant member of her own family

Uncle

"old darkie"
-Uncle Ned
-Bald/ing fiddle player
-"good darkie" who posed no threat

Coon

-Zip _____: urban version, stuttering, buffoon, attempting to mimic whites
-Sambo: simple docile, laughing man, living the life of a child (appears content)

Pickaninny

-characterizations of black children as savage beings
-cartoons of black children being eaten by alligators were frequent

Jezebel

-black woman as lustful by nature
-seductive, alluring, worldly, beguiling, tempting, and lewd
-promiscuous and predatory
-Hint of truth: light-skinned women became the willing concubines of wealthy white southerners (placage)

Magic Negro

-dates back to the 1950's
-Black character given magic powers (Hattie McDonnel: 1st to win Academy award in a role like this but not allowed to attend the award ceremony w/ the rest)
-they're w/o interior lives, they materialize only to rescue the white characters

Sarah Baartman

-famous khoikhoi woman who was exhibited as a freak show attraction in the 19th century in Europe by the name Hottentot Venus

Josephine Baker

- real name: Freda McDonald
-she was an entertainer, performed on stage, screen, and recordings
-worked undercover during French Resistance during WWII
-civil rights activists

James Baldwin

-he was an active participant in the Civil Rights struggle
-wrote "Nobody Knows My Name" which explored white-black relations
-wrote "The Fire Next Time" (1963)

Amiri Imamu Baraka

The Father of the Black Arts Movement

Daniel Beaty

wrote "Emergency" formerly known as "Emergen-SEE"

William Wells Brown

-escaped slaved who wrote "The Escape: or Leap for Freedom" in which he presented some aspects of plantation life including a slave wedding (performed by jumping the broom)

Ed Bullins

-author and American playwright
-wrote "Clara's Ole Man"
"The Taking of Miss Janie"
"Goin a Buffalo"
-won an Obie for "The Famous Miss Marie" and "In New England Winter"

Alice Childress

-she joined ANT in 1940 in Harlem
-became director of ANT in 1941
-wrote "Trouble in Mind" ((Off-broadway)received an Obie in 1956)

Ralf Coleman

director of Negro Federal Theatre of Massachusetts

Ceremony

-formal religious or social occassionusually led by a designated authroity figure such as a priest (ex. wedding)
-follows a sequence of orders/events

Ritual

-acting out of an established prescribed procedure
-achieved through repetition of patterns/symbols/ values

Robert Hooks

received an Obie award for producing Ward's "Day of Absence"

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