Psychology Final

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Catatonia is characterized by

periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement

Client-centered therapists emphasize the importance of:

enabling clients to feel unconditionally accepted.

The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops

rapidly in response to a stressful life situation

The value of light exposure therapy appears to result in part from its influence on people's

hormones

A psychiatrist has diagnosed a patient as having bipolar disorder. It is likely that she will prescribe

lithium

Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of

hypochondriasis

The effectiveness of psychotherapy shows little if any connection to:

the level of training and experience of the therapist.

One of the key characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder is that

it is difficult to control

The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is a disturbance of

memory

Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least

two weeks

Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of

an obsession

Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is

preventing her from functioning effectively

Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates

antisocial personality disorder

An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of

a specific phobia

Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman's behavior is most indicative of

mania

If a therapist tells a client, "Rank order the things that frighten you from least to most," the therapist is most likely practicing

systematic desensitization

systematic desensitization

This technique is based on the principles of classical conditioning and the premise that what has been learned (conditioned) can be unlearned. Systematic desensitization usually starts with imagining yourself in a progression of fearful situations and using relaxation strategies that compete with anxiety

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The main feature of GAD is excessive and pervasive worry about many everyday life events. This worry is difficult to control, persists for more than 6 months and interferes with daily functioning.

Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

social withdrawal

A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often

bias our perceptions of the labeled person

Linda's doctor prescribes medication that blocks the activity of dopamine in her nervous system. Evidently, Linda is being treated with an ________ drug.

antipsychotic

A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family's backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. The therapist's approach to helping Rebecca best illustrates

exposure therapy.

Using the Asch procedure, conformity to group judgments would be LEAST likely when

participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers.

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?

cognitive dissonance theory

cognitive dissonance theory

The term cognitive dissonance is used to describe the feeling of discomfort that results from holding two conflicting beliefs. When there is a discrepancy between beliefs for behaviors, something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance.

the fundamental attribution error

Fundamental attribution error is the tendency for people to emphasize certain qualities or dispositions of others rather than giving proper weight to the situational aspects which have brought about a given behavior. A person will conclude that someone else has acted in a certain way because they are that 'type' of person.

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation

social facilitation

Social facilitation is the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of other people. This implies that whenever people are being watched by others, they will do well on things that they are already good at doing and will not do as well on activities that are more challenging to them.

Marilyn judges her professor's strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates

the fundamental attribution error

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of

the just-world phenomenon

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of

the mere exposure effect

Which of the following strategies would be MOST likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.

Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated

the chameleon effect

A store owner charges Black customers more than Hispanic customers for the very same merchandise. The owner is most clearly engaging in

discrimination

Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate

ingroup bias

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of

normative social influence

Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates

social facilitation

People may unconsciously harbor negative racial associations. This best illustrate the subtle nature of

implicit attitudes

implicit attitudes

are generally unacknowledged or outside of awareness

After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of

the reciprocity norm

the reciprocity norm

refers to responding to a positive action with another positive action, and responding to a negative action with another negative one. This is a very common social norm which says that if I give something to you or help you in any way, then you are obliged to return the favor.

The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study

were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.

Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the ________ of the brain, which play(s) an important role in ________.

frontal lobes; controlling impulses

Ksana insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of

a dispositional attribution

Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in

the bystander effect

When Hutu militia began to slaughter the Tutsi in 1994, missionary Carl Wilkens risked his own life to save the lives of others. His actions best illustrated

altruism

Classical antipsychotics block __________ receptors

dopamine

Tardive dyskinesia

involuntary movement of the facial muscles, tongue and limbs

Atypical antipsychotics target _______________

dopamine and serotonin receptors

Boimedical therapy

Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system; only offered by psychiatrists

Psychopharmacology

the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

Conventional antipsychotics

Remove a number of positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia, like agitation, delusions and hallucination.

Atypical antipsychotics

Remove negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, like apathy, jumbled thoughts, concentration difficulties, difficulty in interacting with others.

Antianxiety Drugs

Control anxiety and agitation and depress central nervous system activity

Antidepressants

treat depression; elevate arousal and mood with norepinephrin and serotonin

Mood-stabalizing medications

lithium

Electroconvlsive Therapy

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; stimulate or suppresses brain activity; used to treat depression and produces no side effects

Deep-brain stimulatioin

excite neurons that inhibit negative emotion thinking

Psychosurgery

irreversible surgical altering of behavior

lobotomy

procedure used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients by cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the brain

Social psychology

scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

Attribution theory: we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

, A teacher may wonder whether a child's hostility reflects an aggressive personality (dispositional attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution)

Attitudes

A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events.

Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

Normative Social Influence

Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid rejection.

Informational Social Influence

The group may provide valuable information, but stubborn people will never listen to others.

Social Loafing

Tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually.

Deindividuation

Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Scapegoat Theory

Prejudice provides an outlet for anger [emotion] by providing someone to blame

Just-World Phenomenon

The tendency to believe the world is just, and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get

Psychotherapy

involves an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient.

Biomedical therapy

uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient's nervous system curing him of psychological disorders.

free association

The patient lies on a couch and speaks about whatever comes to his or her mind.

Interpersonal psychotherapy

a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change.

Client-centeredtherapy

a form of humanistic therapy:
The therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way.

Counter conditioning

a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors.
It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning.

Systematic Desensitization

A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias.

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior modification, in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are either unrewarded or punished.

Beck's Therapy for Depression

Beck believes that cognitions such as "I can never be happy" need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

Single-trauma patients
Imagine traumatic scenes
Therapist triggers eye movements
Allows client to unlock and retrieve frozen memories

Light Exposure Therapy

Used to treat seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Expose the client to bright light
Light influences arousal and hormones/mood?

Anxiety

high arousal of FUTURE events; more physical symptoms than worry

Worry

negative thoughts in anticipation of future events

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Key characteristic is worry
Excessive
Difficult to control
Restlessness
Fatigue
Difficulty concentration
Irritability
Muscle tension
Sleep disturbance

Panic Disorder

Key characteristics of PD:
Recurrent panic attacks
Recurrent concerns about having panic attacks

Social Anxiety Disorder

Key characteristics:
Irrational persistent fear of social situations
Fear of negative evaluation specifically

Specific Phobias

Irrational persistent fear of specific object or situation (e.g., insects, heights, flying)

OCD

Persistent thoughts that are intrusive and cannot get rid of AND/OR
Repetitive behaviors person feels driven to perform

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Experiencing or witnessing of trauma
Re-experiencing of trauma (nightmares, thoughts, flashbacks)
Avoidance of similar situations or people
Increased anxiety

Antonio is an 18 year old undergraduate student that has been having problems sleeping at night for the past year. He spends most of the time in bed worrying about bad things that might happen. When awake, he cannot control his worry over every little thing. For example, he frequently worries about being on time, losing his friends, getting bad grades, making his parents angry, whether people like him, his appearance, whether he will find a romantic partner in college, whether he will graduate on time, about jobs after graduation....

GAD

Major Depressive Disorder

Key characteristic:
At least one major depressive episode

Major depressive episode:
5 or more of the following in a 2-week period:
Depressed mood
Anhedonia (loss of capacity to
experience pleasure)
Eating problems
Sleeping problems
Motor activity
Fatigue
Self-worth
Concentration
Death

Dysthymic Disorder

Chronic depressed mood (at least 2 years)

Bipolar 1

At least one manic episode with or without depressive episode

Bipolar II

At least one major depressive episode with some manic symptoms

Mania

Overexcited
Hyperactive
Wildly Optimistic

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders

All behavior arises from nature AND nurture

Dissociative Disorder plus Dissociative Identity Disorder

Multiple personality; DID has not been found in other countries.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Formerly known as psychopath or sociopath
Lack of conscience

Somatoform Disorder

Symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause

Conversion Disorder

Anxiety presumably is converted into a physical symptom

Schizophrenia

Literal translation "split mind". A group of severe disorders characterized by:
Disorganized and delusional thinking.
Disturbed perceptions.
Inappropriate emotions and actions.
Social and functional deficits.

Positive symptoms: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking) not present in healthy individuals
Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies) present in healthy individuals

Chronic/process schizophrenia

When schizophrenia is slow to develop, recovery is doubtful. These patients usually display more negative symptoms.

Acute/reactive schizophrenia

When schizophrenia rapidly develops, recovery is better. These patients usually show more positive symptoms.

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