term for the Holy Spirit in the Gospel of John, Greek term is "Paraclete."
the belief (eventually rejected in Christianity) that Jesus was an ordinary human being whom God chose declared "my son" at his baptism.
The angel Gabriel's announcement to Mary that she was to bear a son who would sit on the throne of David.
literally means "uncovering" or "revelation" is literature that envisions the end of this age.
a person commissioned to be a messenger, refers to the 12 main disciples of Jesus and a title Paul claimed for himself as well.
The site for the final battle between good and evil according to the book of Revelation, located at Megiddo in northern Israel.
Jesus rising into heaven.
the means of restoring a relationship damaged or severed by sin
literally "blessings," refers to the beginning of Jesus' Sermon on the Mount in Matthew where he lists those who are "blessed" or "happy."
A title for the Roman emperors.
the Roman administration capital of Palestine.
the Sadducee High Priest of the Jerusalem temple in Jesus' time.
the fishing village where Jesus spent much time during his ministry.
a Roman officer, such as Cornelius in Acts.
Greek work meaning "anointed one" (Hebrew messiah/mashiaxh) referring to a king from the house of David.
Theology concerning who is Jesus Christ (e.g. human, divine, etc.)
the removal of the foreskin of the penis, practiced by Jews with infant boys as a sign of their covenant with God through Abraham.
a learner or follower, in the New Testament a follower of Jesus, including the Twelve.
Dead Sea Scrolls
Writings from the first century BCE and CE found in a cave in the desert. They included both ancient Hebrew Bible manuscripts and the writings of the Essene community.
a belief (rejected by Christianity) that Jesus was a pure spirit who did not experience physical need or pain and only appeared to be human.
beliefs about the end of the age or the fulfillment of time
A Jewish sect in the first century BCE and CE that believed they were living in the end times and two messiah's would come - a priestly messiah and a royal Davidic messiah - and there would be a final battle between the "children of light" and the "children of darkness."
a letter addressed to a public audience.
The region where Jesus grew up and conducted much of his ministry, north of Judea and Samaria.
someone who is not a Jew, one belonging to "the nations"
the garden or orchard where Jesus was praying when he was arrested.
the phenomenon of a person speaking a language unknown to themselves understood to be a form of religious inspiration.
refers either in general to the "good news" of salvation through Jesus Christ or specifically to writings about Jesus' life and teachings.
the dominant culture in the Greek and Roman periods influenced by both Greece and the Ancient Near East.
Herod the Great
ruler of Judea under Rome from 40-4 BCE with a reputation for great building projects and for being a cruel ruler.
the ruler of Galilee under the Romans during the time of Jesus. He had John the Baptist beheaded.
literally "in the flesh" refers to the belief that Jesus represents God in the flesh, "the Word became flesh and dwelt among us" (John 1).
James, son of Zebedee
one of the 12 apostles, a fisherman.
James the "brother of the Lord"
one of the leaders of the early church who advocated that Gentile Christians should follow the Jewish laws including circumcision.
the N.T. term for "Judah" referring to the region around and south of Jerusalem during the Roman period.
the name given to Mary's song of praise in Luke after Gabriel told her she would bear the heir to David's throne.
literally, someone who dies for their beliefs; the term is also used for anyone who has suffered at all for their beliefs (see Stephen, book of Acts).
Mary of Nazareth
Jesus' mother, also called "the Virgin Mary"
a disciple of Jesus who was at Jesus' crucifixion, found Jesus' empty tomb, and saw the resurrected Jesus.
Mary of Bethany
friend and disciple of Jesus, sister of Martha and Lazarus.
Hebrew word which literally means "anointed one" refers in the O.T. to God's chosen and anointed king (anointed by God's spirit and with oil).
the town in Galilee where Jesus grew up.
a Roman emperor who persecuted Christians.
a Jewish harvest festival 50 days after passover. According to Acts it was during this festival that Christians received the Holy Spirit after the ascension of Jesus.
a Jewish religious group that encouraged obedience to the laws of the Hebrew Bible and believed in a resurrection of the dead and a judgment day.
a Greek philosopher who argued that the material world is just an inferior copy or shadow of the ideal/spiritual/non-material realm. When we die our immortal souls will leave our material bodies to return to this higher realm.
the Roman governor of Palestine, including Judea, who sentenced Jesus to be crucified.
the name scholars have given to the hypothetical collection of Jesus' sayings quoted by Matthew and Luke, means "source."
the return of the dead to life.
the Jewish group in charge of the Temple in Jerusalem and responsible for maintaining peaceful relations with the Roman occupiers.
a group that considered themselves Jewish but were not recognized by other Jews. They worshipped God at a Temple at Mount Gerizim near Neapolis, rather than in Jerusalem.
the Jewish religious council in Jerusalem.
the Jewish name of Paul of Tarsus.
a Jewish place of worship and scripture reading. Different from the Temple insofar as it was not a place for offering sacrifices. It enabled Jews to worship together without having to travel to the Jerusalem temple.
the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, so-named because of the similarity "seen together"
the appearance of Jesus on Mt. Tabor with Moses and Elijah as reported in the syoptic gospels.
the doctrine officially accepted at the council of Nicea in 325 CE that says that God is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (thus the Father is God; the Son, Jesus, is God; and the Holy Spirit is also God).
a Jewish group of freedom fighters against Roman oppression.