who modernized russia?
what was a modernized russia like? (5 things)
power of the secret police curtailed, rural areas were allowed to elect their own governments, court system reformed, more freedom of the press, and serfs were freed
what european country had the largest territory and population in the mid-1800s?
how many ethnic groups did the russian empire consist of?
many different ones
what is an autocrat?
a ruler who has absolute power
why did russia struggle with the influence of the west?
because from the west came the winds of nationalism and liberalism
what did czar nicholas's program of russification do?
forced people to follow russias beliefs and cultre
what did pan-slavism promote?
the union of all slavic peoples under russias leadership?
where did russia expand its boundaries during the crimean war?
east into asia, but defeated in the crimean war
what does serfdom closely resemble, despite a few differences?
why were serfs freed?
because russian factories needed workers
what was part of a new system of local government that began after 1864?
what freed serfs?
the emancipation edict of 1861
what type of conditions did serfs live in despite having their freedom?
who believed that russia could be reformed only by throwing out the old system entirely and beginning anew?
despite the reforms that new systems of local governments promoted, who did most of the power remain in the hands of?
the nobles and the rich
what did the peoples will use to accomplish its aims?
after alexander II was assassinated what type of programs did his successors institute and why?
programs of repression to stamp out liberalism
what began with soldiers shooting a group of unharmed strikers?
the revolution of 1905
what was the russian parliament called?