# Middle Grades Math and Pre-Algebra

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Math Vocabulary Study Words for 7th Grade GPS Math

### Variable

Letter that represents a number; variable amounts may change

### Constant

Numeric value that does not change

(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose sum is zero

### Coefficient

A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression; a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

### Coordinate Plane (Coordinate Grid)

The plane formed by 2 number lines that intersect at their zero points dividing the plane into 4 quadrants; A coordinate system formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis.

### Irrational Number

a real number that cannot be expressed as a rational number

### Real Number

all rational or irrational numbers; real numbers can be represented on the real number line

### Rational Number

A number that can be written as a/b where a and b are integers, but b is not equal to 0; an integer or a fraction; examples: 6 can be expressed as 6/1; 0.5 can be expressed as 1/2.

### Reciprocal

(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2; a fraction that has been flipped. The reciprocal of 3/4 is 4/3.

### Multiplicative Inverse

The reciprocal of a number.

### Like Terms

Expressions that contain the same variables to the same power

### Variable

a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical or logical expressions to represent a variable quantity; in the expression 2x + 3, x is the variable

### Algebraic Expression

math phrase that uses variables, numbers and operation symbols

### Order of Operations

the order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponets 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction

### Numerical Expression

A mathematical phrase involving one or more terms and operations

### Absolute Value of a real number or |x|

The distance from zero to the real number on a number line.

changing the grouping of terms will not change the sum, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c); ex: (5+3) + 1 = 5 + (3 + 1)

### Associative Property of Multiplication

States that changing grouping of factors does not change the product. (ab)c = a(bc); ex: (2 6) 7 = 2 (6 7)

For any number a and b, a + b = b + a

### Commutative Property of Multiplication

Changing the order of the factors does not change the product; for example 10 x 9 = 9 x 10; a b = b a

### Distributive Property

a property indicating a special way in which multiplication is applied to addition of two or more numbers in which each term inside a set of parentheses can be multiplied by a factor outside the parentheses, such as a(b + c) = ab + ac; ex: 4(3 + 8) = 4(3) + 4(8)

### Additive Identity Property of Zero

The Zero Property of Addition. Adding 0 to a number leaves it unchanged; ex: 67+0=67, 67+0=67

### Inverse Property

The operation which undoes an operation - the opposite operation: subtraction is the inverse of addition, addition is the inverse of subtraction; division is the inverse of multiplication, multiplication is the inverse of division, square root is the opposite of squaring a number

### Ratio

A comparison of two quantities, may be directly represented by numbers and or variables

### Ratio Form

Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a:b or 2:3

### Verbal Ratio Form

Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a to b or 2 to 3

### Fraction Form

Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a/b or 2/3 (denominator cannot be zero)

### Integer

any of the natural numbers (positive or negative) or zero; any of the set of whole numbers and their opposites

### Exponent

The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor

### Numerical Expression

An expression that contains only numbers and operations (2 • 3) + 1

### Equivalent Fractions

Fractions that name the same amount or part, 1/2 and 2/4 are equivalent fractions

### Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

The largest common factor of two or more given numbers; The GCF of 27 and 45 is 9.

### Improper Fraction

A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator; examples: 5/5 or 7/4

### Least Common Multiple (LCM)

The smallest number, other than zero, that is a multiple of two or more given numbers; The LCM of 10 and 18 is 90.

### Prime Factorization

A number written as the product of its prime factors; examples: 10 = 2 • 5, 24 = 2^3 • 3 (^3 means the 3 is written smaller and to the upper right of 2).

### Repeating Decimal

A decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely; The repeating portion of the decimal is shown with a short line drawn over the repeating numbers.

### Terminating Decimal

A decimal number that ends or terminates; example: 6.75

### Function

An input-output relationship that has exactly one output for each input; An equation written with two variables where only one output exists for each input; example: y = 2x +1

### Linear Equation

An equation whose solutions form a straight line on a coordinate plane; example: y = 3x - 1

### Linear Function

A function whose graph is a straight line.

### Ordered Pair

A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane.

### Origin

The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane; (0, 0).

The x- and y-axes divide the coordinate plane into four regions. Each region is called a quadrant.

### Sequence

An ordered list or numbers; example: 2,4,6,8,10...

### Factor

any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together; 3 is a factor of 9

### Multiple

the product of a quantity by an integer; example 24 is a multiple of 3 and 8

### Product

a quantity obtained by multiplication; the answer to a multiplication problem

### Quotient

the number obtained by division; the ratio of two quantities to be divided; the answer to a division problem

### Proportion

statement that two fractions or ratios are equal

### Similar

same shape, but different size

### Scale

the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it

### Scale Factor

The ratio of dimensions of the new image to those of the original figure

### Scale Drawing

A diagram of an object in which the dimensions are in proportion to the actual dimensions of the object.

### Indirect Measurement

A method of measurement that uses formulas, similar figures, and/or proportions.

### Constant

a quantity that does not vary

Example: