Middle Grades Math and Pre-Algebra

55 terms by mjarzewiak Plus

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Math Vocabulary Study Words for 7th Grade GPS Math

Variable

Letter that represents a number; variable amounts may change

Constant

Numeric value that does not change

Additive Inverse

(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose sum is zero

Coefficient

A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression; a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic

Coordinate Plane (Coordinate Grid)

The plane formed by 2 number lines that intersect at their zero points dividing the plane into 4 quadrants; A coordinate system formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis.

Irrational Number

a real number that cannot be expressed as a rational number

Real Number

all rational or irrational numbers; real numbers can be represented on the real number line

Rational Number

A number that can be written as a/b where a and b are integers, but b is not equal to 0; an integer or a fraction; examples: 6 can be expressed as 6/1; 0.5 can be expressed as 1/2.

Reciprocal

(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2; a fraction that has been flipped. The reciprocal of 3/4 is 4/3.

Multiplicative Inverse

The reciprocal of a number.

Like Terms

Expressions that contain the same variables to the same power

Variable

a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical or logical expressions to represent a variable quantity; in the expression 2x + 3, x is the variable

Algebraic Expression

math phrase that uses variables, numbers and operation symbols

Order of Operations

the order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponets 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction

Numerical Expression

A mathematical phrase involving one or more terms and operations

Absolute Value of a real number or |x|

The distance from zero to the real number on a number line.

Associative Property of Addition

changing the grouping of terms will not change the sum, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c); ex: (5+3) + 1 = 5 + (3 + 1)

Associative Property of Multiplication

States that changing grouping of factors does not change the product. (ab)c = a(bc); ex: (2 6) 7 = 2 (6 7)

Commutative Property of Addition

For any number a and b, a + b = b + a

Commutative Property of Multiplication

Changing the order of the factors does not change the product; for example 10 x 9 = 9 x 10; a b = b a

Distributive Property

a property indicating a special way in which multiplication is applied to addition of two or more numbers in which each term inside a set of parentheses can be multiplied by a factor outside the parentheses, such as a(b + c) = ab + ac; ex: 4(3 + 8) = 4(3) + 4(8)

Additive Identity Property of Zero

The Zero Property of Addition. Adding 0 to a number leaves it unchanged; ex: 67+0=67, 67+0=67

Inverse Property

The operation which undoes an operation - the opposite operation: subtraction is the inverse of addition, addition is the inverse of subtraction; division is the inverse of multiplication, multiplication is the inverse of division, square root is the opposite of squaring a number

Ratio

A comparison of two quantities, may be directly represented by numbers and or variables

Ratio Form

Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a:b or 2:3

Verbal Ratio Form

Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a to b or 2 to 3

Fraction Form

Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a/b or 2/3 (denominator cannot be zero)

Integer

any of the natural numbers (positive or negative) or zero; any of the set of whole numbers and their opposites

Exponent

The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor

Numerical Expression

An expression that contains only numbers and operations (2 • 3) + 1

Equivalent Fractions

Fractions that name the same amount or part, 1/2 and 2/4 are equivalent fractions

Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

The largest common factor of two or more given numbers; The GCF of 27 and 45 is 9.

Improper Fraction

A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator; examples: 5/5 or 7/4

Least Common Multiple (LCM)

The smallest number, other than zero, that is a multiple of two or more given numbers; The LCM of 10 and 18 is 90.

Prime Factorization

A number written as the product of its prime factors; examples: 10 = 2 • 5, 24 = 2^3 • 3 (^3 means the 3 is written smaller and to the upper right of 2).

Repeating Decimal

A decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely; The repeating portion of the decimal is shown with a short line drawn over the repeating numbers.

Terminating Decimal

A decimal number that ends or terminates; example: 6.75

Function

An input-output relationship that has exactly one output for each input; An equation written with two variables where only one output exists for each input; example: y = 2x +1

Linear Equation

An equation whose solutions form a straight line on a coordinate plane; example: y = 3x - 1

Linear Function

A function whose graph is a straight line.

Ordered Pair

A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane.

Origin

The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane; (0, 0).

Quadrant

The x- and y-axes divide the coordinate plane into four regions. Each region is called a quadrant.

Sequence

An ordered list or numbers; example: 2,4,6,8,10...

Factor

any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together; 3 is a factor of 9

Multiple

the product of a quantity by an integer; example 24 is a multiple of 3 and 8

Product

a quantity obtained by multiplication; the answer to a multiplication problem

Quotient

the number obtained by division; the ratio of two quantities to be divided; the answer to a division problem

Proportion

statement that two fractions or ratios are equal

Similar

same shape, but different size

Scale

the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it

Scale Factor

The ratio of dimensions of the new image to those of the original figure

Scale Drawing

A diagram of an object in which the dimensions are in proportion to the actual dimensions of the object.

Indirect Measurement

A method of measurement that uses formulas, similar figures, and/or proportions.

Constant

a quantity that does not vary

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